Leisure but not household physical activities associates with metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older individuals: a cross-sectional study
- 20 Downloads
Metabolic syndrome (MS) increases risk of diabetes. Physical activity (PA) is acknowledged to prevent MS, but a few studies in developing countries investigated the relationship between spontaneous PA and MS in older populations. To investigate the association between household and leisure physical activities vs. MS in a cohort of individuals older than 50 years, dwelling in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), southeastern Brazil. In 225 individuals aged 51–91 years (62 ± 9 years), MS and related risk factors were assessed through anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and biochemical analyses, while habitual PA was classified using the Modified Baecke Questionnaire. MS was diagnosed in 64% of the participants. Multivariate logistic regression showed that low levels of household activities discriminated patients with higher blood glucose, obesity, and diabetes mellitus, but were not associated with the risk of having MS. Conversely, leisure PA not only discriminated individual risk factors (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and abdominal circumference), but also associated with MS. Patients declaring not having performed leisure PA within the last year had 2.5 higher risk of exhibiting MS [95% CI (1.22–5.34)], after adjustments for age, body mass index, VLDL, and household PA. Leisure but not household PA is associated with the risk of having MS in an urban population of Brazilian middle-aged and elder individuals. These findings suggest that tasks usually performed at home would not be of sufficient intensity/volume to prevent MS in this population.
KeywordsLogistic models Cardiovascular diseases Aging Adult health Baecke Questionnaire
This study was partially supported by grants from the Brazilian Council for Technological and Research Development (CNPq, 309012/2010-4) and Carlos Chagas Foundation for the Research Support in Rio de Janeiro State (FAPERJ, E-26/110.184/2013).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 2.Lopez Suarez A, Elvira Gonzalez J, Beltran Robles M, Alwakil M, Saucedo JM, Bascunana Quirell A, et al. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and metabolic syndrome in over 50-year-olds in Sanlucar de Barrameda, Spain. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2008;61(11):1150–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Stensvold D, Nauman J, Nilsen TI, Wisloff U, Slordahl SA, Vatten L. Even low level of physical activity is associated with reduced mortality among people with metabolic syndrome, a population based study (the HUNT 2 study, Norway). BMC Med. 2011;9:109. https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-9-109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.World Health Organization. Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva: WHO; 2010.Google Scholar
- 8.Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia. Atlas Corações do Brasil. São Paulo: Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia; 2005.Google Scholar
- 9.Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Instituto Nacional de Câncer. Coordenação de Prevenção e Vigilância. Inquérito domiciliar sobre comportamentos de risco e morbidade referida de doenças e agravos não transmissíveis: Brasil, 15 capitais e Distrito Federal, 2002–2003. Rio de Janeiro: INCA; 2004.Google Scholar
- 11.Ramos JS, Dalleck LC, Borrani F, Mallard AR, Clark B, Keating SE, et al. The effect of different volumes of high-intensity interval training on proinsulin in participants with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised trial. Diabetologia. 2016;59(11):2308–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-016-4064-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Madsen SM, Thorup AC, Overgaard K, Bjerre M, Jeppesen PB. Functional and structural vascular adaptations following 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training in lower leg of type 2 diabetes patients and individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2015;121(5):178–86. https://doi.org/10.3109/13813455.2015.1087033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Expert Panel on Detection E, Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in A. Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III). JAMA. 2001;285(19):2486–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Kunst A, Drager B, Ziegenhorn J. UV methods with hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Methods of Enzymatic Anal. Deerfield: Ed. Verlag Chmie.; 1983.Google Scholar
- 20.Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18(6):499–502.Google Scholar
- 24.Meneton P, Lemogne C, Herquelot E, Bonenfant S, Larson MG, Vasan RS, et al. A global view of the relationships between the main behavioural and clinical cardiovascular risk factors in the GAZEL prospective cohort. PLoS One. 2016;11(9):e0162386. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet. 2012;380(9838):219–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Omech B, Tshikuka JG, Mwita JC, Tsima B, Nkomazana O, Amone-P'Olak K. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of general medical outpatient clinics using National Cholesterol Education Program. Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Botswana. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2016;9:273–9. https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S109007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Firdaus M. Prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome in the elderly. J Okla State Med Assoc. 2005;98(2):63–6.Google Scholar
- 35.Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1334–59. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett DR Jr, Tudor-Locke C, et al. 2011 compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011; 43: 1575–1581. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821ece12.
- 39.Sisson SB, Camhi SM, Church TS, Martin CK, Tudor-Locke C, Bouchard C, et al. Leisure time sedentary behavior, occupational/domestic physical activity, and metabolic syndrome in U.S. men and women. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009;7(6):529–36. https://doi.org/10.1089/met.2009.0023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar