Type 2 diabetes and FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism: a study among the two tribal population groups of Manipur, North East India

  • Somorjit Singh Ningombam
  • Sunanda Rajkumari
  • Varhlun Chhungi
  • Masan Kambo Newmei
  • Naorem Kiranmala Devi
  • Prakash Ranjan Mondal
  • Kallur Nava SaraswathyEmail author
Original Article


Diabetes is one of the most underrated epidemic worldwide, and its prevalence has increased rapidly in developing nations like India. It has increased not only in the general population per se, but even among the indigenous tribal populations also. Several candidate genes have been associated with type 2 diabetes, and the association of type 2 diabetes and FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism is a matter of debate. The present study aims to understand the prevalence of type-2 diabetes and its association with FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism, among the Naga and Mizo tribe of Manipur, North East India. Demographic, somatometric variables and blood samples from 521 individuals were collected and FTO rs9939609 variant was screened. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes/impaired fasting glucose was found to be 10.1 and 43.73% among the Liangmai and Mizo tribe, respectively. The FTO variant showed an increased risk for impaired fasting glucose (OR 1.25; CI 0.38–4.1) among the Liangmai tribe, but among Mizo tribe, it showed an increased risk for type 2 diabetes (OR 1.34; CI 0.73–2.4), albeit with no statistical significances. This suggests that there seems to be diverse effect of FTO rs9939609 A allele in the two tribes, i.e., disadvantageous effect among Liangmai tribe and an adaptive effect among Mizo tribe.


Type 2 diabetes FTO gene Genetic association variation Tribal population North East India 



Type 2 diabetes


Body mass index


Confidence interval


Deoxyribonucleic acid


Fat mass and obesity associated


Hip circumference




Odds ratio




Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism


Single nucleotide polymorphism


Waist circumference


Waist-hip ratio


Waist-height ratio



The authors acknowledge all the participants for their kind cooperation in the present study. The authors also acknowledge Department of Anthropology, Manipur University for providing laboratory facilities during the fieldwork. The authors also acknowledge Ms. Suniti Yadav for providing assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.

Authors’ contributions

Somorjit Singh Ningombam, Sunanda Rajkumari, Naorem Kiranmala Devi, and Kallur Nava Saraswathy analyzed the data and drafted the manuscript. Naorem Kiranmala Devi, Prakash Ranjan Mondal, and Kallur Nava Saraswathy designed the study and directed implementation and data collection. Somorjit Singh Ningombam, Varhlun Chhungi, Masan Kambo Newmei, and Sunanda Rajkumari collected the data and laboratory analysis, and Kallur Nava Saraswathy provided necessary logistic support. Somorjit Singh Ningombam, Naorem Kiranmala Devi, and Kallur Nava Saraswathy edited the manuscript for intellectual content and provided critical comment on the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The Ethical committee, Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, India approved the study. The written informed consents were obtained from all the subject participants before conducting the study.


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Copyright information

© Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Somorjit Singh Ningombam
    • 1
  • Sunanda Rajkumari
    • 1
  • Varhlun Chhungi
    • 1
  • Masan Kambo Newmei
    • 1
  • Naorem Kiranmala Devi
    • 1
  • Prakash Ranjan Mondal
    • 1
  • Kallur Nava Saraswathy
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Biochemical and Molecular Anthropology Laboratory, Department of AnthropologyUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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