A comparison of serum fructosamine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus levels in the first, second, and third trimester in obese and non-obese pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus
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Previous study demonstrated that obesity and associated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are increasing. However, the combination of obesity and GDM contribute to the pregnancy complication have yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare serum fructosamine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus levels in the first, second, and third trimester in obese and non-obese pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus. We performed a prospective, case-control study in 30 obese women diagnosed with GDM, 30 non-obese pregnant women with GDM, and 30 non-obese and without GDM, age-matched pregnant women who were enrolled in the first, second, and third trimester and followed-up until delivery. Blood samples were collected once from each participant in the first trimester of pregnancy, during the fetal viability scan, once in the second trimester of gestation during screening for gestational diabetes mellitus, and once in the third trimester of gestation. Serum fructosamine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus levels were measured. In the third trimester, fructosamine level (1.8 ± 0.08) was slightly higher in obese women who were diagnosed with GDM than in the second and first trimester (1.70 ± 0.12, 1.70 ± 0.09), respectively. But, in the third trimester, phosphorus levels were slightly lower in GDM women who were GDM women than in the first trimester. In the first, second, and third trimester, in these subjects, the mean levels of vitamin D and calcium were slightly different. Our data tend to support the concept that fructosamine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus level assays can provide a good index of health control especially in obese. This study has increased our knowledge of biochemical changes in GDM among obese pregnant women with GDM.
KeywordsFructosamine Gestational diabetes mellitus 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Calcium and phosphorus Trimester
Gestational diabetes mellitus
Body mass index
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Department of Biology of Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran, and Dr. Evangeline Foronda and Dr. Arian Sadri for English editing.
All authors participated in the design, interpretation of the studies, analysis of the data, and review of the manuscript; DQ designed the experiments and preparation of the manuscript; MN conducted the experiments and performed analysis; BR was involved in conception and design, data analysis, and interpretation.
This study was supported by the thesis project Department of Biology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran.
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in current study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Damghan University Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments. Informed consent was obtained for all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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