Determinants of self-monitoring of blood glucose with type 2 diabetes based on 496 questionnaire surveys in China
- 10 Downloads
The purpose of the study was to investigate the current status quo of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) levels and to analyze the relationship between demographics and other characteristics of SMBG among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in China. In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, 496 individuals with T2D from five provinces across China voluntarily participated in the study and completed a standardized questionnaire that requested information on demographic data, clinic-related information, and glucose monitoring. Data was obtained via face-to-face interviews. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with SMBG. Of the total sample, 99 (20.0%) participants had never performed SMBG and/or less than once. We found that 104 participants (21.0%) had tested just once. In addition 119 people (24.0%) had tested twice, 89 (18.0%) had tested between three and six times, and 85 participants (17.1%) had tested more than seven times in a week. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis found that the patients that had high monitoring frequencies were those with URBMI, UEBMI, and GMI insurance; those who had previously experienced complications; inpatients; and those with a knowledge of HbA1c testing. The frequency of SMBG was suboptimal, compared with the once prior to each meal recommendation by the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Several factors influenced SMBG frequency: types of health insurance, complications, impatience, and knowledge of HbA1c.
KeywordsType 2 diabetes Self-monitoring of blood glucose Continuous glucose monitoring
We thank all the investigation centers for their cooperation and all the endocrinologists for their assisting in collecting the data.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Our study was a retrospective survey, using data from patients over the past period of time, so we simply obtained verbal consent from all patients during the interview.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.World Health Organization(WHO). The top 10 causes of death. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/. Accessed April 6, 2017.
- 2.LiaoMM, YinTT, ShiSH, KongY.The current status of compliance and coping styles of diabetes patients. Nurs J Chin People's Liberation Army2012;11:30–32.[in Chinese].Google Scholar
- 3.Diabetesatlas.org. International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Atlas. 7th edition. http://www.diabetesatlas.org. Accessed April 6, 2017.
- 6.idf.org. Global guideline for type 2 diabetes. http://www.idf.org/global-guideline-type-2-diabetes. Accessed April 6, 2017.
- 7.American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care2013;36:S11–S66.Google Scholar
- 8.JiaW P. Chinese clinical guideline for continuous glucose monitoring (2012) Chin Med J, 2012, 125(23):4167.Google Scholar
- 11.Bolzetta F. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2010. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(Suppl 1):S11–61.Google Scholar
- 22.Cano-BlanquerD, Cervera-CasinoP, Peiró-MorenoS, Mateu-GarcíaM., Barreda-AznarA., Grupo de Estudio de la Automonitorización Glucémica Prevalence and associated factors in self-monitoring of blood glucose in noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes patients in the Valencia Community, Spain [J]. Rev Esp Salud Publica, 2013, 87(2):149–163. doi: https://doi.org/10.4321/S1135-57272013000200005.
- 23.WHO.Consultation. Consultation, definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part l: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1999. p. 1–59.Google Scholar
- 24.Delgado-Pérez VJ, De La Rosa-Santillana R, Márquez-Corona ML, Ávila-Burgos L, Islas-Granillo H, Minaya-Sánchez M, et al. Diabetes or hypertension as risk indicators for missing teeth experience: an exploratory study in a sample of Mexican adults. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017;20:1335–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Pan CY, The Investigated Cooperation Group of China. The status of diabetes control in China: the gap between guideline and practice. Section Endocrinol Foreign Med Sci. 2005;3:174–8. [in Chinese]Google Scholar