Left ventricular mass in offspring of diabetic mothers: at 5–7 years old
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Newborns of mothers with diabetes have increased risk for cardiac left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Diabetic pregnancy is also associated with in increased risk for obesity and hypertension, as well as for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to examine the connection between being the offspring from a diabetic pregnancy and having hypertension and obesity to the increased risk to have left ventricular mass (LVM) and altered LV geometry in childhood. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 23 offspring of diabetic mothers and 23 sex- and age-matched control children at the age of 5–7 years. LVM and LV geometry were assessed using M-mode echocardiography and indexed for height2.7. Data analyses were adjusted for birth weight, current overweight/obesity status and blood pressure. Prevalence of increased LVM/height2.7 was higher in children of diabetic mothers, i.e. 43.5 vs. 8.7% in the control group (RR (95% CI) 5.0 (1.2–20.4), p = 0.007). The association between maternal diabetes and increased LVM persisted after adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, current overweight/obesity status and blood pressure, with regression coefficient of (95% CI) 5.7 (1.4–10.1), p = 0.01. Together, maternal diabetes, overweight/obesity status and blood pressure contributed 50% to the increase. Results showed that children of diabetic mothers were more likely to have altered LV geometry (RR (95% CI) 6.0 (1.5–23.9), p < 0.001). Maternal diabetes is a risk factor for increased LVM and altered LV geometry in childhood.
KeywordsDiabetic pregnancy Maternal diabetes Childhood Left ventricular mass Left ventricular geometry Left ventricular hypertrophy
All the three authors’ (RL, N, MJ) contributed to the conception and the design of the study. RL and N contributed to the acquisition of the data, and RL and MJ analysed the data. All authors (RL, N, MJ) contributed to the interpretation of the data. RL drafted the article. N and MJ critically revised the draft. All (RL, N, MJ) approved the version to be published and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work, including ensuring integrity and accuracy.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was approved by the Medical and Health Research Ethics Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and national regulations and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Written informed consent was obtained from parents before data collection.
Prior publication in the abstract form
The abstract of this paper has been presented in The 9th Biennial Scientific Meeting of the Asia Pacific Paediatric Endocrine Society (APPES) in Tokyo, Japan, in November 19, 2016.
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