Pharmacist’s interventions to improve clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Nyala City, South Darfur State, Sudan

  • Ahmad Dahab Ahmad
  • Asim Ahmad Elnour
  • Mirghani AbdElrahman Yousif
  • Farah Hamad Farah
  • Hasab Alrasoul Akasha
  • Abubakar Abasaeed
  • Abdulla shehab
  • Naama Al Kalbani
  • Saif Al Nuaimim
  • Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula
  • Omar Abdulla Shehab
  • Abdulla AA Al Amoodi
Original Article


Prospective randomized controlled interventional (pre and post) clinical trial aimed to examine impact of pharmacist’s interventions (during 1 year follow-up) on diabetes clinical outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes in Nyala City, Sudan. Three hundred patients (200 intervention and 100 control groups) with type 2 diabetes were clinically evaluated for diabetes care contents before and after implementation of diabetes care international guidelines from Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). We measured patient’s general and diabetes satisfaction level regarding diabetes care, by using Patient Satisfaction (PSQ-18) and Diabetes Satisfaction (DSQ) Questionnaires. Diabetes care elements were compared against international guidelines to achieve target goals of blood glucose and HBA1c. The clinical pharmacist in collaboration with the diabetes care team implemented ICSI standards for care of patients with type 2 diabetes. The role of pharmacist in diabetes management team has involved behavioral and educational aspects of patients with type 2 diabetes, self-monitoring of blood glucose, lifestyle changes, and the status of diabetes care and general health. Clinically significant differences were achieved in terms of post-prandial blood glucose (PPBG) levels (7.4 ± 1.7 vs. 10.4 ± 2.0 mmol/L) between intervention and control groups, respectively. Percentage of intervention group that reached target PPBG increased from (12.0 to 54.0 %; p = 0.001). Percentage of intervention group that reached target HBA1c increased from 10.5 to 52.0 %. HBA1c values for intervention group were improved as compared to control group (7.8 ± 1.9 % vs. 9.5 ± 2 %; p = 0.001), respectively. Pharmacist’s interventions yielded increased percentage of intervention group as compared to control group, who achieved comprehensive diabetes clinical outcomes.


Clinical diabetes outcomes Diabetes care Diabetes satisfaction Pharmacist interventions 



The authors wish to thank all participating patients, physicians, pharmacists, and nursing staff of primary health-care facilities in Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan, for their support. We applauded the contribution: Dr. Mohammed Mandour (late former General Director of Central Medical Supplies [CMS], Khartoum, Sudan), Professor Abu Bakr Gurashi, and Professor El Hadi Mohammad (Dean Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Gezira).

Conflict of interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Dahab Ahmad
    • 1
    • 2
  • Asim Ahmad Elnour
    • 3
  • Mirghani AbdElrahman Yousif
    • 4
  • Farah Hamad Farah
    • 5
  • Hasab Alrasoul Akasha
    • 6
  • Abubakar Abasaeed
    • 7
    • 8
  • Abdulla shehab
    • 9
  • Naama Al Kalbani
    • 10
  • Saif Al Nuaimim
    • 10
  • Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula
    • 11
  • Omar Abdulla Shehab
    • 9
  • Abdulla AA Al Amoodi
    • 9
  1. 1.Revolving Drug Fund (RDF), Ministry of Health (MOH)NyalaSudan
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of PharmacyGezira UniversityMedaniSudan
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology, College of medicine and health SciencesUAE UniversityAl AinUAE
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of PharmacyTaif UniversityTaifSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.College of Pharmacy and health SciencesAjman University of Sciences and TechnologyAjmanUAE
  6. 6.The Epidemiological Laboratory (Epi-Lab)KhartoumSudan
  7. 7.Social and Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of PharmacyCharles UniversityHradec KraloveCzech Republic
  8. 8.Registration and Drug Control DepartmentMinistry of HealthAbu DhabiUAE
  9. 9.Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health SciencesUAE UniversityAl AinUAE
  10. 10.Abu Dhabi Health Services-SEHATawam HospitalAl AinUAE
  11. 11.Department of Clinical PharmacyUniversity of Gondar-College of Medicine and Health SciencesGondarEthiopia

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