Serum Adenosine deaminase activity in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients

  • M. N. Vanitha Gowda
  • K. C. Vasudha
  • S. Reshma
  • K. J. Sujatha
Original Article

Abstract

The assessment of insulin resistance is advantageous since it detects those at risk for the development of diabetes mellitus at early stages and minimizes complications. Various methods like euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique, fasting serum insulin levels, HOMA and QUICKI have been used to determine insulin sensitivity but they have limitations. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme that has been suggested to be important for modulating the bioactivity of insulin. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the role of serum adenosine deaminase as a marker for insulin resistance. The study recruited 46 subjects of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and 40 healthy controls matched for age and sex between May 2010 and November 2010. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, adenosine deaminase activity were estimated. QUICKI and HOMA were calculated. Serum ADA was positively correlated with fasting serum glucose, insulin, HOMA and negatively correlated with QUICKI in the diabetic group. At 95 % CI and a cut off of 36.91U/L serum ADA activity in the diabetic group showed a sensitivity and specificity of 98 % and 90 % respectively. Serum ADA activity was increased with an increase in insulin resistance in the diabetic population. ADA may be used as a marker of insulin resistance and can be employed as an effective tool in screening for insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

Keywords

Adenosine deaminase Insulin resistance Diabetes mellitus HOMA QUICKI 

References

  1. 1.
    American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2009;32 Suppl 1:S62–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    The expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003;26:S5–20.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Potenza MV, Mechanick JI. The metabolic syndrome: definition, global impact, and pathophysiology. Nutr Clin Pract. 2009;24:560–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim JA, Montagnani M, Koh KK, Quon MJ. Reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms. Circulation. 2006;113:1888–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huang PL. A comprehensive definition for metabolic syndrome. Dis Model Mech. 2009;2:231–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Muniyappa R, Lee S, Chen H, Quon MJ. Current approaches for assessing insulin sensitivity and resistance in vivo: advantages, limitations, and appropriate usage. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:15–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Borai A, Livingstone C, Ferns GAA. The biochemical assessment of insulin resistance. Ann Clin Biochem. 2007;44:324–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Edwards YH, Hopkanson DA, Hams H. Adenosme deaminase lsozymes in human tissues. Ann Hum Genet. 1971;35:207–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Van der Weyden MB, Kelly WN. Human adenosine deaminase: distribution and properties. J Biol Chem. 1976;251:5448–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blackburn MR, Kellems RE. Adenosine deaminase deficiency: metabolic basis of immune deficiency and pulmonary inflammation. Adv Immunol. 2005;86:1–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baghanha MF, Pego A, Lima MA, et al. Serum and pleural adenosine deaminase correlation with lymphocyte populations. Chest. 1990;87:605–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ungerer JP, Oosthuizen HM, Bissbort SH, Vermaak WJ. Serum adenosine deaminase: isoenzymes and diagnostic application. Clin Chem. 1992;38:1322–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Matteucci E, Giampietro O. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (CD26): knowing the function before inhibiting the enzyme. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16:2943–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kurtul N, Pence S, Akarsu E, et al. Adenosine deaminase activity in the serum of type 2 diabetic patients. Acta Medica(Hradec Kralove). 2004;47:33–5.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hoshino T, Yamada K, Masuoka K, et al. Elevated adenosine deaminase activity in the serum of patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1994;25:97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Warrier A, Rao NY, et al. Evaluation of Adenosine Deaminase activity and lipid peroxidation levels in Diabetes Mellitus. IJCB. 1995;10:9–13.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rutkiewicz J, Gorski J. On the role of insulin in regulation of adenosine deaminase activity in rat tissues. FEBS Lett. 1990;271:79–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McAuley KA, Williams SM, Mann JI, Walker RJ, Lewis-Barned NJ, Temple LA, et al. Diagnosing insulin resistance in the general population. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:460–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gupta A, Gupta V, Agrawal S, Natu SM, Agrawal CG, Negi MPS, Tiwari S. Association between circulating leptin and insulin resistance, the lipid profile, and metabolic risk factors in North Indian adult women. BioScience Trends. 2010;4:325–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giusti G, Galanti B. Colorimetric method. Adenosine deaminase. In: Bergmeyer HU, editor. Methods of enzymatic Analysis. 3rd ed. Weinheim: Verlag chemie; 1984. p. 315–23.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee JG, Kang DG, Yu JR, Kim Y, Kim J, Koh G, et al. Changes in adenosine deaminase activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and effect of DPP-4 inhibitor treatment on ADA activity. Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35:149–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bottini E, Gloria-Bottini F. Adenosine deaminase and body mass index in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 1999;48:949–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bopp A, De Bona KS, Bellé LP, Moresco RN, Moretto MB. Syzygium cumini inhibits adenosine deaminase activity and reduces glucose levels in hyperglycemic patients. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2009;23:501–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koopmans SJ, Sips HC, Bosman J, Radder JK, Krans HM. Antilipolytic action of insulin in adipocytes from starved and diabetic rats during adenosine-controlled incubations. Endocrinology. 1989;125:3044–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Green A, Newsholme EA. Sensitivity of glucose uptake and lipolysis of white adipocytes of the rat to insulin and effects of some metabolites. Biochem J. 1979;180:365–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Musi N, Hirshman MF, Nygren J, Svanfeldt M, Bavenholm P, Rooyackers O, et al. Metformin increases AMP-activated protein kinase activity in skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2002;51:2074–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pérez-Aguilar MC, Goncalves L, Ibarra A, Bonfante-Cabarcas R. Adenosine deaminase as costimulatory molecule and marker of cellular immunity. Investig Clin. 2010;51:561–71.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lambeir AM, Durinx C, Scharpé S, De Meester I, Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV. Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV from bench to bedside: an update on structural properties, functions, and clinical aspects of the enzyme DPP IV. Sciences. 2003;40:209–94.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gracia E, Pérez-Capote K, Moreno E, Barkešová J, Mallol J, Lluís C, et al. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase. Biochem J. 2011;435:701–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Samsel M, Dzierzbicka K. Therapeutic potential of adenosine analogues and conjugates. Pharmacol Rep Online. 2011;63:601–17.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kaya S, Cetin ES, Aridogan BC, Arikan S, Demirci M. Adenosine deaminase activity in serum of patients with hepatitis—a useful tool in monitoring clinical status. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2007;40:288–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kobayashi F, Ikeda T, Marumo F, Sato C. Adenosine deaminase isoenzymes in liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993;88:266–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. Vanitha Gowda
    • 1
  • K. C. Vasudha
    • 1
  • S. Reshma
    • 1
  • K. J. Sujatha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryMS Ramaiah Medical CollegeBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations