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Cellular Oncology

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 609–626 | Cite as

Recent advances in the clinical development of immune checkpoint blockade therapy

  • Atefeh Ghahremanloo
  • Arash Soltani
  • Seyed Mohamad Sadegh Modaresi
  • Seyed Isaac HashemyEmail author
Review

Abstract

Background

The discovery of immune checkpoint proteins and the mechanisms by which cancer cells utilize them to evade the immune system has transformed our approach to cancer immunotherapy. Checkpoint blockade antibodies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands such as programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have already revolutionized the treatment of multiple types of cancer and have significantly improved treatment and survival outcomes of patients affected by these malignancies.

Conclusions

Herein, we summarize current knowledge about the role of, and the mechanisms underlying PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathways in antitumor immune responses, with particular emphasis on clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in various tumor types. Preliminary clinical investigations with immune-checkpoint blockers highlight broad opportunities with a high potential to enhance antitumor immunity and, as such, to generate significant clinical responses. These preliminary successes open up new avenues towards efficient therapeutics offered to patients.

Keywords

Checkpoint inhibitors Cancer immunotherapy PD-1/PDL-1 mechanism Immune checkpoint blockade antibodies Immune resistance Combination immune therapy 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

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© International Society for Cellular Oncology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  3. 3.College of PharmacyUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA
  4. 4.Surgical Oncology Research CenterMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran

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