Anaerobic digestion of textile industries wastes for biogas production

  • 7 Accesses


Energy and nutrient recovery by anaerobic digestion of textile industry wastes (sludge) is facing challenges due to the anticipated toxicity, lower pH (6.6) and low C:N ratio (12.2). In the present study, the anaerobic co-digestion of textile aerobic sludge (ETP) generated in industry with different co-substrates (Food waste and Cow dung) was assessed through biochemical methane potential tests under mesophilic temperature (35 °C). The VS and ash content of textile sludge was observed to be 5.9 gVS/L and 41.4 g/L, respectively. In lab-scale study, the cumulative biogas and methane production from textile sludge was observed under controlled conditions (36 ± 1 °C) using CD (cow dung) as co-substrate in 1:1 ratio. It was found that the cumulative biogas and methane production were 567.3 and 244.1 mL/gVS added, respectively, during the 30-day digestion period while using the CD with textile sludge. On-site (at leading textile industry) cumulative biogas production from textile sludge with CD and FW (food waste) co-substrate was 524.4 and 288.3 mL/gTS added, respectively, during the 30-day anaerobic digestion. In the lab-scale study, the VSR (volatile solid reduction), Total Alkalinity (T. Alk.) and TVFA (Total volatile fatty acid) observed were 39.5%, 300 and 340.7 mg/L after completion of anaerobic digestion. The digestibility of the textile sludge, as reflected based on COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, was higher with CD co-substrate (51%) as compared to FW (37%). After anaerobic digestion of CD and FW co-substrate, the TAN (Total ammoniacal nitrogen) and T. Alk. were observed as 147.5, 222.5 and 2560, 2800 mg/L, respectively. The present study provided an efficient method for textile sludge utilization coupled with biogas generation. The surplus energy generated during the process can be utilized in several operational units and also overcome the sludge disposal issued faced by leading textile industries.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4



Biomethane potential




Cow dung


Crude glycerol


Cattle manure


Effluent treatment plant


Food waste


Industrial sludge


Kilolitre per day


Kilo watt hour


Municipal solid waste


Olive mill wastewater


Substrate to inoculum ratio


Soluble chemical oxygen demand

T. Alk.:

Total alkalinity


Total chemical oxygen demand


Total ammonical nitrogen


Total solid


Total volatile fatty acid


Textile sludge

Tx + CD:

Textile sludge with cow dung

Tx + FW:

Textile sludge with food waste


Volatile solid


Volatile solid reduction


  1. 1.

    Jeihanipour A, Aslanzadeh S, Rajendran K et al (2013) High-rate biogas production from waste textiles using a two-stage process. Renew Energy 52:128–135.

  2. 2.

    Karthik T, Rathinamoorthy R (2015) Environmental implications of recycling and recycled products. Springer

  3. 3.

    Devi P, Saroha AK (2017) Utilization of sludge based adsorbents for the removal of various pollutants: a review. Sci Total Environ 578:16–33.

  4. 4.

    Rahman MM, Khan MMR, Uddin MT, Islam MA (2017) Textile effluent treatment plant sludge: characterization and utilization in building materials. Arab J Sci Eng 42:1435–1442.

  5. 5.

    Assemany PP, Calijuri ML, Tango MD, Couto EA (2016) Energy potential of algal biomass cultivated in a photobioreactor using effluent from a meat processing plant. Algal Res 17:53–60.

  6. 6.

    Kharpude S, Sharma D (2013) A computer based approach for economic analysis of Deenbandhu biogas plant based on co-digestion of Agri-wastes. Eco Env Cons Copyright@ EM Int ISSN 19:503–508

  7. 7.

    Sri Bala Kameswari K, Kalyanaraman C, Umamaheswari B, Thanasekaran K (2014) Enhancement of biogas generation during co-digestion of tannery solid wastes through optimization of mix proportions of substrates. Clean Techn Environ Policy 16:1067–1080.

  8. 8.

    Ağdağ ON, Sponza DT (2007) Co-digestion of mixed industrial sludge with municipal solid wastes in anaerobic simulated landfilling bioreactors. J Hazard Mater 140:75–85.

  9. 9.

    Brown D, Li Y (2013) Solid state anaerobic co-digestion of yard waste and food waste for biogas production. Bioresour Technol 127:275–280.

  10. 10.

    Angelidaki I, Alves MM, Bolzonella D, Borzacconi L, Campos JL, Guwy AJ, Kalyuzhnyi S, Jenicek P, van Lier J (2009) Defining the biomethane potential (BMP) of solid organic wastes and energy crops : a proposed protocol for batch assays. Water Sci Technol 59(5):927–934

  11. 11.

    Prajapati SK, Kumar P, Malik A, Vijay VK (2014) Bioconversion of algae to methane and subsequent utilization of digestate for algae cultivation: a closed loop bioenergy generation process. Bioresour Technol 158.

  12. 12.

    Prajapati SK, Kaushik P, Malik A, Vijay VK (2013) Phycoremediation and biogas potential of native algal isolates from soil and wastewater. Bioresour Technol 135:232–238.

  13. 13.

    Krishania M, Kumar V, Vijay VK, Malik A (2013) Analysis of different techniques used for improvement of biomethanation process: a review. Fuel 106:1–9.

  14. 14.

    Eaton AD, Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water & wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC

  15. 15.

    Siedlecka E, Kumirska J (2008) Determination of volatile fatty acids in environmental aqueous samples. Polish J Environ Stud 17:351–356

  16. 16.

    Shanmugam P, Horan NJ (2009) Optimising the biogas production from leather fleshing waste by co-digestion with MSW. Bioresour Technol 100:4117–4120.

  17. 17.

    Sosnowski P, Wieczorek A, Ledakowicz S (2003) Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. Adv Environ Res 7:609–616.

  18. 18.

    Speece RE Anaerobic biotechnology for industrial wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Technol 17(9):416A–427A

  19. 19.

    Gurung A, Van Ginkel SW, Kang WC et al (2012) Evaluation of marine biomass as a source of methane in batch tests: a lab-scale study. Energy 43:396–401.

  20. 20.

    Prajapati SK, Malik A, Vijay VK, Sreekrishnan TR (2015) Enhanced methane production from algal biomass through short duration enzymatic pretreatment and codigestion with carbon rich waste. RSC Adv 5:67175–67183.

  21. 21.

    Bryant MP (1979) Microbial methane production—theoretical aspects 2. J Anim Sci 48:193–201.

  22. 22.

    Murto M, Björnsson L, Mattiasson B (2004) Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure. J Environ Manag 70:101–107.

  23. 23.

    Buendía IM, Fernández FJ, Villaseñor J, Rodríguez L (2009) Feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion as a treatment option of meat industry wastes. Bioresour Technol 100:1903–1909.

  24. 24.

    Khalid A, Arshad M, Anjum M et al (2011) The anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste. Waste Manag 31:1737–1744.

  25. 25.

    Chen Y, Cheng JJ, Creamer KS (2008) Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review. Bioresour Technol 99:4044–4064.

  26. 26.

    Nayono SE, Gallert C, Winter J (2010) Co-digestion of press water and food waste in a biowaste digester for improvement of biogas production. Bioresour Technol 101:6998–7004.

  27. 27.

    Mata-Alvarez J, Macé S, Llabrés P (2000) Anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes. An overview of research achievements and perspectives. Bioresour Technol 74:3–16.

  28. 28.

    Asia IO, Oladoja NA, Bamuza-Pemu (2006) Treatment of textile sludge using anaerobic technology. Afr J Biotechnol 5:1678–1683

  29. 29.

    Katal R, Zare H, Rastegar SO et al (2014) Removal of dye and chemical oxygen demand (cod) reduction from textile industrial wastewater using hybrid bioreactors. Environ Eng Manag J 13:43–50.

  30. 30.

    Opwis K, Gutmann JS (2012) Generation of biogas from textile waste waters. Chem Eng Trans 27:103–108.

  31. 31.

    Apollo S, Onyango MS, Ochieng A (2014) Integrated UV photodegradation and anaerobic digestion of textile dye for efficient biogas production using zeolite. Chem Eng J 245:241–247.

  32. 32.

    Montingelli ME, Tedesco S, Olabi AG (2015) Biogas production from algal biomass: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 43:961–972.

  33. 33.

    Heo NH, Park SC, Kang H (2004) Effects of mixture ratio and hydraulic retention time on single-stage anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge. J Environ Sci Health A 39(7):1739–1756.

  34. 34.

    De Vrieze J, Raport L, Willems B et al (2015) Inoculum selection influences the biochemical methane potential of agro-industrial substrates. Microb Biotechnol 8:776–786.

  35. 35.

    Lee JY, Yoo C, Jun SY, et al (2010) Comparison of several methods for effective lipid extraction from microalgae. In: Bioresource Technology. pp S75–7

  36. 36.

    Zhong W, Zhang Z, Luo Y, Qiao W, Xiao M, Zhang M (2012) Biogas productivity by co-digesting Taihu blue algae with corn straw as an external carbon source. Bioresour Technol 114:281–286.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Anushree Malik.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material


(DOCX 14 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kumar, P., Samuchiwal, S. & Malik, A. Anaerobic digestion of textile industries wastes for biogas production. Biomass Conv. Bioref. (2020) doi:10.1007/s13399-020-00601-8

Download citation


  • Anaerobic digestion
  • Textile sludge
  • Food waste
  • Cow dung
  • Biogas
  • Textile industry