Effect of process conditions on the properties of castor oil maleate and styrene copolymer produced by bulk polymerization

  • Dayanne L. H. Maia
  • Fabiano A. N. Fernandes
Original Article


This work evaluated the influence of process conditions on the chemical characteristics and yield of polymers based on castor oil. Castor oil maleate and styrene copolymers (MACO-Sty) were produced by bulk polymerization using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and cobalt naphthenate as free radical initiators and reaction accelerators, respectively. The effects of temperature (100 to 140 °C), molar ratio between styrene and castor oil maleate (2:1 to 4:1), BPO concentration (0.10 to 0.20 wt%), and cobalt naphthenate concentration (0.10 to 0.20 wt%) were evaluated on the number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw), dispersity (Đ), molar fraction of styrene in the copolymer, reaction yield, and viscosity of the copolymer. A wide range of molecular weights (Mw from 15,809 to 38,656) could be produced, with dispersity ranging from 2.0 to 4.8, and high yields into copolymers (> 80%). The physical characteristics ranged from resins of low viscosity (1.583 Pa s) to solid polymers.


Castor oil Styrene Copolymerization Batch reaction Bulk polymerization 


Funding information

This study is the financially supported by the Brazilian funding institutes CNPq and CAPES.


  1. 1.
    Mosiewicki MA, Aranguren MI (2016) Recent developments in plant oil based functional materials. Polym Int 65:28–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang C, Garrison TF, Madbouly SA, Kessler MR (2017) Recent advances in vegetable oil-based polymers and their composites. Prog Polym Sci 71:91–143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alam M, Akram D, Sharmin E, Zafar F, Ahmad S (2014) Vegetable oil based eco-friendly coating materials: a review article. Arab J Chem 7:469–479. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miao S, Wang P, Su Z, Zhang S (2014) Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials. Acta Biomater 10:1692–1704. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mubofu EB (2016) Castor oil as a potential renewable resource for the production of functional materials. Sustain Chem Process 4:11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kunduru KR, Basu A, Haim Zada M, Domb AJ (2015) Castor oil-based biodegradable polyesters. Biomacromolecules 16:2572–2587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vibhute BP, Khotpal RR, Karadbhajane VY, Kulkarni AS (2013) Preparation of maleinized castor oil (MCO) by conventional method and its application in the formulation of liquid detergent. Int J Chem Tech Res 5:1886–1896Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    de Espinosa LM, Meier MAR (2011) Plant oils: the perfect renewable resource for polymer science? Eur Polym J 47:837–852. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang HJ, Rong MZ, Zhang MQ, Hu J, Chen HW, Czigány T (2008) Biodegradable foam plastics based on castor oil. Biomacromolecules 9:615–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Maia DLH, Alves Filho EG, Barros Junior AF, Fabiano FAN (2018) Kinetics of the production of castor oil maleate through the autocatalyzed thermal reaction and the free radical reaction. In J Chem Kinet 50:112–121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Indrajati IN, Dewi IR (2017) Performance of maleated castor oil based plasticizer on rubber: rheology and curing characteristic studies. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 223:012001. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Campanella A, Zhan M, Watt P, Grous AT, Shen C, Wool RP (2015) Triglyceride-based thermosetting resins with different reactive diluents and fiber reinforced composite applications. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 72:192–199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sharma V, Kundu PP (2006) Addition polymers from natural oils-a review. Prog Polym Sci 31:983–1008. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mao W, Li S, Li M, Huang K, Xia J (2017) Design, preparation and properties of novel flame retardant thermosetting vinyl ester copolymers based on castor oil and industrial dipentene. Polish J Chem Technol 19:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mamat X, Wang Y, Eli W (2012) New potentially environmentally friendly copolymer of styrene and maleic acid-castor oil monoester. Polym Adv Technol 23:1271–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Echeverri DA, Jaramillo F, Rios LA (2015) Curing copolymerization kinetics of styrene with maleated castor oil glycerides obtained from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol. J Appl Polym Sci 132:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Engenharia Química, Campus do PiciUniversidade Federal do CearáFortalezaBrazil

Personalised recommendations