Optimization of the conventional hydrothermal carbonization to produce hydrochar from fish waste
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Fish waste disposal is a major cause for concern for the seafood processing industries. Fish processing generates enormous quantities of waste as almost 45% of the live weight of fish is regarded as waste. Current ways of managing fish waste involves dumping in oceans, landfills, or treating them with already established strategies. Dumping these wastes without any form of treatment is far from being environmental friendly. Current utilization strategies suffer from disadvantages such as incomplete utilization of solid and liquid wastes or generation of new waste effluents that needs further processing. Therefore, there is a need to find an alternate/supplemental method of seafood utilization. Previously, we have reported the use of microwave hydrothermal carbonization (MHTC) to carbonize fish waste to hydrochar. Here, a conventional heating method such as a custom autoclave reactor is reported that could also be used to carbonize fish waste to hydrochar. Upon response surface design optimization, it was found that a maximal yield of hydrochar (~ 35%) can be achieved at a holding temperature of 180 °C and at a holding time of 120 min. We have also characterized the elemental, proximate, energy, and surface properties of hydrochar produced by conventional hydrothermal carbonization (CHTC). It was found that the quality of the hydrochar produced by MHTC is largely comparable to CHTC. This further proves that HTC could be employed to generate energy from non-lignocellulosic wastes such as fish waste while getting rid of the waste in an eco-friendly manner.
KeywordsFish waste Hydrochar Response surface design Conventional hydrothermal carbonization Energy value
Analysis of variance
Central composite design
Conventional hydrothermal carbonization
Design of experiment
Energy enrichment factor
Microwave hydrothermal carbonization
Raw fish waste
Scanning electron microscope
The authors are grateful to Dr. Valerie Orsat for providing access to the FTIR equipment. The authors would like to acknowledge the “Elemental Analysis Service” at the University of Montreal and Dr. Arif Mustafa for the help with the bomb calorimetry experiments. The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Darwin Lyew and Dr. Ramesh Murugesan for their help in consultations during the course of the research.
This work was supported by operating grants from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) to GSVR and it was also supported by the Faculty for the Future grant by Schlumberger Foundation to SK.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors are affiliated to the McGill University and have filed for a patent for the method described in this study. The authors declare that they do not have any non-financial competing interests.
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