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Experimental Investigation of Water-Cooled Heat Pipes in the Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion EV Batteries

  • Faiza M. NasirEmail author
  • Mohd Z. Abdullah
  • Mohd A. Ismail
Research Article - Mechanical Engineering
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

In this work, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the thermal performance of a heat pipe thermal management system for electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries. The battery cells were represented by two proxy cells with a heat source ranging from 10 to 35 W/cell. The evaporator of the heat pipes was in close contact with the battery cell surface, and the condenser was subjected to the forced convection of circulating water. The performance was characterized by the maximum surface temperature, temperature difference, total thermal resistance and Nusselt number at the condenser side. The effects of heat inputs, length of the condenser and water flowrate were also investigated. A condenser length in the range of 100–150 mm and water flowrate showed insignificant effects on the battery surface temperature and the total thermal resistance. Heat pipes were also observed to be able to reduce the battery surface temperature by 39.1% on average. They are also capable of maintaining the surface temperature below 50 °C and temperature differential below 5 °C if the heat generation of the battery cell is less than 20 W.

Keywords

Heat pipes Lithium-ion Electric vehicle Thermal management Sintered wick 

Abbreviations

BTMS

Battery thermal management system

EV

Electric vehicle

HEV

Hybrid electric vehicle

NCC

Naturally cooled condenser

PCM

Phase-change material

TMS

Thermal management system

WCC

Water-cooled condenser

List of Symbols

δ

Thickness (m)

Mass flowrate (kg/s)

η

Thermal efficiency of heat pipe

Nu

Nusselt number

As

Surface area of the heat pipe that is exposed to the water (m2)

cp

Specific heat capacity (J/kg K)

d

Diameter (m)

eh

Uncertainty for convection coefficient

eloss

Uncertainty for the heat loss

eNu

Uncertainty for Nusselt number

eQ

Uncertainty for heat input

eR

Uncertainty for thermal resistance

h

Convection heat transfer coefficient (W/m K)

I

Electrical current (A)

k

Thermal conductivity of the surrounding fluid at the condenser side (W/m2 K)

L

Length (m)

Qcond

Heat removed from the condenser section (W)

Rt

Total thermal resistance of the system (K/W)

Tp

Average surface temperature of the proxy battery cell (°C)

Tf

Temperature of the surrounding fluid (water) on the condenser side (°C)

Tin

Water temperature at the entrance of the water tank (°C)

Tout

Water temperature at the exit of the water tank (°C)

Tpipe

Condenser surface temperature (°C)

V

Voltage (V)

Subscripts

c

Condenser

e

Evaporator

i

Inner

o

Outer

w

Wick outer region

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the supports provided by Universiti Sains Malaysia and Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Spanish Institute.

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Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical SectionUniversiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Spanish InstituteKulimMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia

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