Control of Cylinder Consistency for a Two-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

  • Rui Liu
  • Jing Sheng
  • Minxiang Wei
  • Yongsheng Liang
  • Yifan Chen
Research Article - Mechanical Engineering


To solve the inconsistency problem of multi-cylinders of two-stroke spark-ignition engines and use the air–fuel ratio for the control of cylinder consistency on the basis of the factors that influence the consistency between cylinders, an individual cylinder fuel compensation control strategy based on the air–fuel ratio deviation including feedforward and feedback control was proposed. The basic fuel injection quantity was determined using the feedforward control. Proportion–integration–differentiation feedback control based on the air–fuel ratio deviation helped realize the compensation and correction of individual cylinder fuel. To achieve consistency control between cylinders, engine bench tests for the idle and small-load conditions were conducted on a two-cylinder two-stroke spark-ignition engine. The test results show that the reduced pressure difference between the two cylinders was less than 10%. The head temperature and air–fuel ratio between the two cylinders were also reduced. The air–fuel ratio of the two cylinders was similar to the target value, which indicates that the control strategy has a good control effect.


Two-stroke SI engine Cylinder consistency Air–fuel ratio Control strategy UAV 



Air–fuel ratio


After top dead centre


Crank angle


Electronic control unit


Spark ignition


Unmanned aerial vehicle


Universal exhaust gas oxygen

List of Symbols


Air–fuel ratio deviation


Rate of air–fuel ratio deviation


Deviation of PID controller


Proportion coefficient


Integration coefficient


Differentiation coefficient


Basic fuel injection quantity

\({ P}_\mathrm{pav}\)

Average peak pressure


Control parameter of PID controller


Output of controller


Threshold value


Output of the fuzzy PID controller


Output of the conventional PID controller


Threshold value of air–fuel ratio

\(y_0 \)

Target air–fuel ratio

\(y_1 , y_2 \)

Air–fuel ratio of cylinders 1 and 2





Initial fuel injection


Fuzzy proportion–integration–differentiation






Average peak pressure




Threshold value of air–fuel ratio

Greek Symbols

\(\alpha \)

Throttle position

\(\beta \)

Output weight of the conventional PID controller


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This study was funded by the Introduce Talent Funding for Scientific Research at Nanjing Tech University (Grant No. 3827401744) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (51865031), as well as the Science and Technology Research Project of Jiangxi Provincial Education Department (Grant No. GJJ170789). The research project was also supported by the Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Aerospace Power System (Grant No. CEPE2018003).


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Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Power EngineeringNanjing Tech UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.College of Mechanical and Electrical EngineeringNanchang Institute of TechnologyNanchangChina
  3. 3.College of Energy and Power EngineeringNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina

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