Advertisement

Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 4911–4920 | Cite as

Importing and Exporting Agricultural Crop Products: An Assessment of Virtual Water Flow (VWF) in Saudi Arabia

  • Shakhawat ChowdhuryEmail author
  • Fayzul Kabir
  • Imran Rahman Chowdhury
  • Maria P. Papadopoulou
Research Article - Civil Engineering
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

Virtual water (VW) is increasingly used to understand water consumption related to goods and services in a country. This study estimated the virtual water flow (VWF) for the import and export of agricultural crops in Saudi Arabia. In 2012, Saudi Arabia imported 16.5 million ton (MT) of 58 different crop items from more than 70 countries, while the country exported 0.80 MT of 55 different crop items. The overall import and export were 1.6 and 0.08 kg per person per day, respectively. In 2012, the country imported approximately 22,922 million \(\hbox {m}^{3}\) (\(\hbox {Mm}^{3}\)) of VW in the form of crop and crop products, in which the major contributors were barley (44.5%), rice (15.1%) and wheat (13.7%). The country exported 970 \(\hbox {Mm}^{3}\) of VW, associated mainly with dates (30.3%), potatoes (13.6%), sunflower seed (8.6%) and corn (8.2%). The net VWF into the country was 21,952 \(\hbox {Mm}^{3}\), which was equivalent to 776 \(\hbox {m}^{3}\) per person per year. The export of VW was 4.2% of VW import. Through better management of imported animal feed and adjusting the import from source countries, import of subsidized crop and VWF into Saudi Arabia can be reduced, which can lower the expenditure and protect the global water resources.

Keywords

Virtual water content Agricultural production Virtual water net balance Water footprint Animal feed 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

13369_2018_3627_MOESM1_ESM.docx (130 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (docx 129 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Allan, J.A.: Perspectives on countries and regions. In: Rogers, P., Lydon, P. (eds.) Water in Arab World: Perspectives and Progress, pp. 1–21. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1994).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00031-9 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allan, J.A.: Fortunately there are substitutes for water otherwise our hydro-political futures would be impossible. Priorities Water Resour. Alloc. Manag. 13–26 (1992). http://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/210-93PR-11967.pdf#page=18
  3. 3.
    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.: The water needed to have the Dutch drink coffee. UNESCO-IHE Inst. Water Educ. Water Res. Ser. 14, 8 (2003a). http://www.waterfootprintnetwork.org/Reports/Report14.pdf
  4. 4.
    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.: Virtual water flows between nations in relation to trade in livestock and livestock products. Water Sci. Technol. 49, 203–209 (2003b)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund): Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and Alternatives, NY, USA (2014). http://www.unicef.org/wash/
  6. 6.
    Perlman, H.: Where is Earth’s water? USGS water-science school. In: U.S. Geological Survey (2013). http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthwherewater.html
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    CIA (Central Intelligence Agency): Freshwater Withdrawal, Virginia, United States (2008). https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2202.html
  9. 9.
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization): AQUASTAT-FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture (2016). http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm
  10. 10.
    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Trimble, S.W.: Virtual Water: Measuring Flows Around the World, Encyclopedia of Water Science, pp. 1–5. Taylor & Francis, New York (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1081/E-EWS-120042189 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.: Water Footprints of Nations (Vol 1), Value of Water Research Report Series No. 16 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Chapagain, A.K.: Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s Freshwater Resources. Blackwell Publishing, Hoboken (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470696224 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization): AQUASTAT Data (2014). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.H2O.INTR.PC
  14. 14.
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization): CROPWAT Model (2003a)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization): Economic Valuation of Water Resources in Agriculture, FAO Water Reports No. 27 (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    CDSI (Central Department of Statistics and Information): Import Statistics of Saudi Arabia in 2012 (2012a)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    CDSI (Central Department of Statistics and Information): Export Statistics of Saudi Arabia in 2012 (2012b)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Papadopoulou, M.P.; Charchousi, D.; Tsoukala, V.K.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Petrakis, M.: Water footprint assessment considering climate change effects on future agricultural production in Mediterranean region. Desalin. Water Treat. 57, 2232–2242 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1049408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Charchousi, D.; Tsoukala, V.K.; Papadopoulou, M.P.: How evapotranspiration process may affect the estimation of water footprint indicator in agriculture? Desalin. Water Treat. 53, 3234–3243 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.934118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marini, E.; Papadopoulou, M.P.; Tsoukala, V.: Water footprint assessment in river basin scale using GIS technology. In: E-Proceedings of 9th World Congress of EWRA “Water Resources Management in a Changing World: Challenges and Opportunities”, Istanbul, Turkey (2015)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stathatou, P.M.G.; Tsoukala, V.K.; Papadopoulou, M.P.; Stamou, A.; Spiliotopoulou, N.; Theoxari, C.; Papagrigoriou, S.: An environmental approach for the management and protection of heavily irrigated regions. Glob. Nest J. 14, 276–283 (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mekonnen, M.; Hoekstra, A.: National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption. UNESCO-IHE Res. Rep. 2, 50 (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.: Water footprints of nations. Water Res. 2, 240 (2004b).  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-15-1577-2011 Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fader, M.; Rost, S.; Müller, C.; Bondeau, A.; Gerten, D.: Virtual water content of temperate cereals and maize: present and potential future patterns. J. Hydrol. 384, 218–231 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.12.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hoekstra, A.Y.: Virtual water trade. In: Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, pp. 1–244 (2003). http://www.waterfootprint.org/Reports/Report12.pdf
  26. 26.
    Zimmer, D.; Renault, D.: FAO: virtual water in food production and global trade: review of methodological issues and preliminary results. FAO, pp. 1–19 (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
    FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization): Review of World Water Resources by Country (2003b). http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4473e/y4473e00.htm#Contents
  29. 29.
    DeNicola, E.; Aburizaiza, O.S.; Siddique, A.; Khwaja, H.; Carpenter, D.O.: Climate change and water scarcity: the case of Saudi Arabia. Ann. Glob. Health 81, 342–353 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2015.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Suweis, S.; Rinaldo, A.; Maritan, A.; D’Odorico, P.: Water-controlled wealth of nations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110, 4230–4233 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1222452110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    USDA (United States Department of Agriculture): Saudi Arabia: Grain and Feed Annual, GAIN Report No. SA1602 (2016). https://gain.fas.usda.gov/RecentGAINPublications/GrainandFeedAnnual_Riyadh_SaudiArabia_3-14-2016.pdf
  32. 32.
    Chowdhury, S.; Ouda, O.K.M.; Papadopoulou, M.P.: Virtual water content for meat and egg production through livestock farming in Saudi Arabia. Appl. Water Sci. 7, 4691–4703 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-017-0631-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    MEWA (Ministry of Environment Water and Agriculture): Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture (2017). https://www.mewa.gov.sa/en/Pages/default.aspx
  34. 34.
    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Chapagain, A.K.: Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. In: Integrated Assessment of Water Resources and Global Change: A North-South Analysis, pp. 35–48 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5591-1-3
  35. 35.
    MOWE (Ministry of Water and Electricity): The Ministry of Water and Electricity Annual Report (2015). http://www.mowe.gov.sa/ENIndex.aspx
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
    Abbas, A.; Chowdhury, S.: Effects of temperature and growing seasons on crop water requirement: implications on water savings. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag. 20, 424–433 (2016)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    CDSI (Central Department of Statistics and Information): Saudi Statistical Year Book (2014)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    MOWE (Ministry of Water and Electricity): The Ministry of Water and Electricity Annual Report, 2013, Saudi Arabia (2014)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    MOWE (Ministry of Water and Electricity): The Ministry of Water and Electricity Annual Report, 2011, Saudi Arabia (2012)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    MOEP (Ministry of Economy and Planning): Ninth Development Plan of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh (2010)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ouda, O.K.M.: Treated wastewater use in Saudi Arabia: challenges and initiatives. Int. J. Water Resour. Dev. (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2015.1116435
  43. 43.
    Chowdhury, S.; Al-Zahrani, M.: Reuse of treated wastewater in Saudi Arabia: an assessment framework. J. Water Reuse Desalin. 03(3), 297–314 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Research GroupKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.School of Rural and Surveying Engineering National Technical University of Athens (NTUA)ZografouGreece

Personalised recommendations