Advertisement

Keyword Binning-Based Efficient Search on Encrypted Cloud Data

  • Rohit Handa
  • C. Rama Krishna
  • Naveen Aggarwal
Research Article - Computer Engineering and Computer Science
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

Cloud provides storage facility to its users at a reduced cost, but storing confidential data on the cloud is a security concern. To provide data privacy, the confidential data are encrypted before outsourcing to the cloud. Storing encrypted data in the cloud affects the utilization of data as it makes document searching inefficient. Although recent research has tried to make searching efficient, still there is a trade-off between the search efficiency and search accuracy. As the cloud is based on the pay-per-use model, more is the time required to retrieve the relevant documents more will be the financial burden on end users which affects their cloud-usage satisfaction. In this paper, the concept of keyword binning is proposed where document indexes are assigned to multiple buckets based on the contained keywords and search is performed only in relevant buckets. So, we use the number of comparisons as one of the metrics as it affects the search time. With ranking incorporated, the retrieved results are ranked efficiently and in 84% of the cases 4 out of the top-5 results of the proposed scheme match the 4 results in top-5 plain-text ranked results. For enhanced query privacy, we also propose an efficient query randomization scheme. The experimental results using Reuters-21578 dataset show that the proposed scheme is privacy-preserving and efficient with 100% recall and 98.45% precision.

Keywords

Cloud storage Privacy-preserving Keyword binning Searchable encryption Information retrieval Multi-keyword Ranked results Cipher-text searching 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Storage as a service. http://www.csc.com/storage_as_a_service/ds/136741/136742-why_staas. [Accessed: 04-07-2016]
  2. 2.
    Handa, R.: A survey on cloud computing and cloud security. Int. J. Distrib. Cloud Comput.2(2) (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    CloudPassage: Cloud security 2016. https://pages.cloudpassage.com/rs/857-FXQ-213/images/cloud-security-survey-report-2016.pdf (2016). [Accessed 16-01-2017]
  4. 4.
    Bhatia, T.; Verma, A.: Data security in mobile cloud computing paradigm: a survey, taxonomy and open research issues. J. Supercomput. 73(6), 2558–2631 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ahmad, M.; Amin, M.B.; Hussain, S.; Kang, B.H.; Cheong, T.; Lee, S.: Health fog: a novel framework for health and wellness applications. J. Supercomput. 72(10), 3677–3695 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ghorbel, A.; Ghorbel, M.; Jmaiel, M.: Privacy in cloud computing environments: a survey and research challenges. J. Supercomput. 73(6), 2763–2800 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mowbray, M.; Pearson, S.; Shen, Y.: Enhancing privacy in cloud computing via policy-based obfuscation. J. Supercomput. 61(2), 267–291 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Modi, C.; Patel, D.; Borisaniya, B.; Patel, A.; Rajarajan, M.: A survey on security issues and solutions at different layers of cloud computing. J. Supercomput. 63(2), 561–592 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang, C., Cao, N., Li, J., Ren, K., Lou, W.: Secure ranked keyword search over encrypted cloud data. In: Proceedings of 30th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 253–262. Genova, Italy (2010). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDCS.2010.34
  10. 10.
    Boneh, D.; Di Crescenzo, G.; Ostrovsky, R.; Persiano, G.: Public key encryption with keyword search. In: Proceedings of Springer International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, pp. 506–522. Interlaken, Switzerland (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-24676-330
  11. 11.
    Goh, E.J.; et al.: Secure indexes. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive p. 216 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chang, Y.C.; Mitzenmacher, M.: Privacy preserving keyword searches on remote encrypted data. In: Proceedings of Third Springer International Conference on Applied Cryptography and Network Security, pp. 442–455. New York, USA (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1007/1149613730
  13. 13.
    Ucal, M.: Searching on encrypted data. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland College Park pp. 1–18 (2005). http://www.researchgate.net/publication/228757457_Searching_on_Encrypted_Data
  14. 14.
    Curtmola, R.; Garay, J.; Kamara, S.; Ostrovsky, R.: Searchable symmetric encryption: improved definitions and efficient constructions. J. Comput. Secur. 19(5), 895–934 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Salam, M.I.; Yau, W.C.; Chin, J.J.; Heng, S.H.; Ling, H.C.; Phan, R.C.; Poh, G.S.; Tan, S.Y.; Yap, W.S.: Implementation of searchable symmetric encryption for privacy-preserving keyword search on cloud storage. Human-centric Comput. Inf. Sci. 5(19), 1–16 (2015)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu, Q.; Wang, G.; Wu, J.: Secure and privacy preserving keyword searching for cloud storage services. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 35(3), 927–933 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2011.03.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Alabdulatif, A.; Khalil, I.; Mai, V.: Protection of electronic health records (EHRs) in cloud. In: Proceedings of the Annual IEEE International Conference of Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 4191–4194. Osaka, Japan (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2013.6610469
  18. 18.
    Sun, X.; Zhu, Y.; Xia, Z.; Chen, L.: Privacy- preserving keyword-based semantic search over encrypted cloud data. Int. J. Secur. Appl. 8(3), 9–20 (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tong, Y.; Sun, J.; Chow, S.S.M.; Li, P.: Cloud-assisted mobile-access of health data with privacy and auditability. IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 18(2), 419–429 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2013.2294932 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nepolean, D.; Karthik, I.; Preethi, M.; Goyal, R.; Vanethi, M.K.: Privacy preserving ranked keyword search over encrypted cloud data. In: Proceedings of Springer International Conference on Security in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems, pp. 396–403. Trivandrum, India (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-54525-235
  21. 21.
    Deng, Z.; Li, K.; Li, K.; Zhou, J.: A multi-user searchable encryption scheme with keyword authorization in a cloud storage. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2016.05.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ibrahim, A.; Jin, H., Yassin, A.A.; Zou, D.: Secure rank-ordered search of multi-keyword trapdoor over encrypted cloud data. In: Proceedings of IEEE Asia-Pacific Services Computing Conference, pp. 263–270. Guilin, China (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1109/APSCC.2012.59
  23. 23.
    Orencik, C.; Savas, E.: Efficient and secure ranked multi-keyword search on encrypted cloud data. In: Proceedings of ACM Joint EDBT/ICDT Workshops, pp. 186–195. New York, USA (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2320765.2320820
  24. 24.
    Örencik, C.; Savas, E.: An efficient privacy-preserving multi-keyword search over encrypted cloud data with ranking. Distrib. Parallel Databases 32(1), 119–160 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10619-013-7123-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ren, K.; Wang, C.; Wang, Q.: Toward secure and effective data utilization in public cloud. IEEE Netw. 26(6), 69–74 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1109/Mnet.2012.6375896 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Örencik, C.; Kantarcioglu, M.; Savas, E.: A practical and secure multi-keyword search method over encrypted cloud data. In: Proceedings of 6th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing, pp. 390–397. Santa Clara, CA (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1109/CLOUD.2013.18
  27. 27.
    Pervez, Z.; Awan, A.A.; Khattak, A.M.; Lee, S.; Huh, E.N.: Privacy-aware searching with oblivious term matching for cloud storage. J. Supercomput. 63(2), 538–560 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-012-0829-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fu, Z.; Sun, X.; Xia, Z.; Zhou, L.; Shu, J.: Multi-keyword ranked search supporting synonym query over encrypted data in cloud computing. In: Proceedings of 32nd IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference, pp. 1–8. San Diego, California, USA (2013)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yu, J.; Lu, P.; Zhu, Y.; Xue, G.; Li, M.: Towards secure multi-keyword top-k retrieval over encrypted cloud data. IEEE Trans. Dependable Secur. Comput. 10(4), 239–250 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TDSC.2013.9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mathew, S.S.; Hafsath, C.A.: Facilitating efficient encrypted document storage and retrieval in a cloud framework. IOSR J. Comput. Eng. 16(5), 18–24 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fu, Z.; Sun, X.; Linge, N.; Zhou, L.: Achieving effective cloud search services: multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data supporting synonym query. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 60(1), 164–172 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ajai, A.; Rajesh, R.: Hierarchical multi-keyword ranked search for secured document retrieval in public clouds. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communication and Network Technologies, pp. 33–37. Hefei, China (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1109/CNT.2014.7062720
  33. 33.
    Song, W.; Wang, B.; Wang, Q.; Peng, Z.; Lou, W.; Cui, Y.: A privacy-preserved full-text retrieval algorithm over encrypted data for cloud storage applications. J. Parallel Distribut. Comput. 99, 14–27 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpdc.2016.05.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen, C.; Zhu, X.; Shen, P.; Hu, J.: A hierarchical clustering method for big data oriented ciphertext search. In: Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM Computer Communications Workshops, pp. 559–564. New York, USA (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1109/INFCOMW.2014.6849292
  35. 35.
    Chen, C.; Zhu, X.; Shen, P.; Hu, J.; Guo, S.; Tari, Z.; Zomaya, A.: An efficient privacy-preserving ranked keyword search method. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 27(4), 951–963 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPDS.2015.2425407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhao, R.; Li, H.; Yang, Y.; Liang, Y.: Privacy-preserving personalized search over encrypted cloud data supporting multi-keyword ranking. In: Proceedings of 6th IEEE International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing, pp. 1–6. Hefei, China (2014)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tseng, C.Y.; Lu, C.; Chou, C.F.: Efficient privacy-preserving multi-keyword ranked search utilizing document replication and partition. In: Proceedings of 12th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, pp. 671–676. Las Vegas, USA (2015)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wu, Y.; Su, J.; Li, B.: Keyword search over shared cloud data without secure channel or authority. In: Proceedings of 8th IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing, pp. 580–587. New York, USA (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1109/CLOUD.2015.83
  39. 39.
    Wang, B., Yu, S., Lou, W., Hou, Y.T.: Privacy-preserving multi-keyword fuzzy search over encrypted data in the cloud. In: Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Communications, pp. 2112–2120. Toronto, Canada (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1109/INFOCOM.2014.6848153
  40. 40.
    Li, H.; Liu, D.; Dai, Y.; Luan, T.H.; Shen, X.S.: Enabling efficient multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted mobile cloud data through blind storage. IEEE Trans. Emerg. Top. Comput. 3(1), 127–138 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TETC.2014.2371239 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Li, H.; Liu, D.; Dai, Y.; Luan, T.H.: Engineering searchable encryption of mobile cloud networks: when qoe meets qop. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(4), 74–80 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ma, R.; Li, J.; Guan, H.; Xia, M.; Liu, X.: EnDAS: efficient encrypted data search as a mobile cloud service. IEEE Trans. Emerg. Top. Comput. 3(3), 372–383 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TETC.2015.2445101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Will, M.A.; Ko, R.K.L.; Witten, I.H.: Bin encoding : a user-centric secure full-text searching scheme for the cloud. In: Proceedings of 14th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communication, pp. 563–570. Helsinki (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1109/Trustcom.2015.420
  44. 44.
    Pasupuleti, S.K.; Ramalingam, S.; Buyya, R.: An efficient and secure privacy-preserving approach for outsourced data of resource constrained mobile devices in cloud computing. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 64, 12–22 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2015.11.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liu, Q.; Tan, C.C.; Wu, J.; Wang, G.: Towards differential query services in cost-efficient clouds. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 25(6), 1648–1658 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPDS.2013.132 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Xia, Z.; Sun, X.; Chen, L.; Liu, Q.: An efficient and privacy-preserving semantic multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data. Adv. Sci. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 284–289 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.14257/ijsia.2014.8.2.33 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Handa, R.; Rama Krishna, C.: A cluster based multi-keyword search on outsourced encrypted cloud data. In: Proceedings of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development, pp. 115–120 (2015)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wang, J.; Yu, X.; Zhao, M.: Privacy-preserving ranked multi-keyword fuzzy search on cloud encrypted data supporting range query. Arab. J. Sci. Eng. 40(8), 2375–2388 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-015-1737-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xu, L.; Weng, C.Y.; Yuan, L.P.; Wu, M.E.; Tso, R.; Sun, H.M.: A shareable keyword search over encrypted data in cloud computing. J. Supercomput. pp. 1–23 (2015)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Keyword and search engines statistics. https://www.keyworddiscovery.com/keyword-stats.html?date=2017-02-01. [Accessed: 24-03-2017]
  51. 51.
    Cao, N., Wang, C.; Li, M.; Ren, K.; Lou, W.: Privacy-preserving multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data. In: Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 25, pp. 829–837. Shanghai, China (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1109/INFCOM.2011.5935306
  52. 52.
    Li, R.; Xu, Z.; Kang, W.; Yow, K.C.; Xu, C.Z.: Efficient multi-keyword ranked query over encrypted data in cloud computing. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 30, 179–190 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Boucenna, F.; Nouali, O.; Dabah, A.; Kechid, S.: Accelerated search over encrypted cloud data. In: IEEE International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (BigComp), pp. 170–177. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ding, X.; Liu, P.; Jin, H.: Privacy-preserving multi-keyword top-k similarity search over encrypted data. IEEE Trans. Dependable Secur. Comput. (2017)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wang, P.; Wang, H.; Pieprzyk, J.: An efficient scheme of common secure indices for conjunctive keyword-based retrieval on encrypted data. In: Proceedings of 9th Springer International Workshop on Information Security Applications, vol. 5379, pp. 145–159. Jeju Island, Korea (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Handa, R.; Challa, R.K.: An efficient cluster-based multi-keyword search on encrypted cloud data. CSI Commun. 39(3), 20–27 (2015)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Song, D.X.; Wagner, D.; Perrig, A.: Practical techniques for searches on encrypted data. In: Proceeding of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 44–55. Berkeley, California, USA (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1109/SECPRI.2000.848445
  58. 58.
    Boneh, D.; Franklin, M.: Identity-Based Encryption from the Weil Pairing. SIAM J. Comput. 32(3), 586–615 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1137/S0097539701398521 MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cash, D.; Jaeger, J.; Jarecki, S.; Jutla, C.; Krawczyk, H.; Rosu, M.C.; Steiner, M.: Dynamic Searchable Encryption in Very-Large Databases: Data Structures and Implementation. Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2014/853, 1–32 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.14722/ndss.2014.23264
  60. 60.
    Swaminathan, A.; Mao, Y., Su; G.M.; Gou, H.; Varna, A.L.; He, S.; Wu, M., Oard, D.W.: Confidentiality-preserving rank-ordered search. In: Proceedings of ACM Workshop on Storage Security and Survivability, pp. 7–12. USA (2007). 10.1145/1314313.1314316Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Van Dijk, M., Gentry, C., Halevi, S., Vaikuntanathan, V.: Fully homomorphic encryption over the integers. In: Proceedings of 29th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, pp. 24–43 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38348-920 http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-13190-5_2
  62. 62.
    Ostrovsky, R.; Skeith, W.E.: Private searching on streaming data. In: Proceedings of 25th Springer Annual International Cryptology Conference, pp. 223–240. Santa Barbara, California, USA (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Stehlé, D.; Steinfeld, R.: Faster fully homomorphic encryption. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17373-822 CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Li, J.; Wang, Q.; Wang, C.; Cao, N.; Ren, K., Lou, W.: Fuzzy keyword search over encrypted data in cloud computing. In: Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Conference on Information Communications, vol. 2, pp. 441–445. San Diego, California, USA (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1109/INFCOM.2010.5462196
  65. 65.
    Li, M.; Yu, S.; Cao, N.; Lou, W.: Authorized private keyword search over encrypted data in cloud computing. In: 31st International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 383–392 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDCS.2011.55. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=5961719
  66. 66.
    Gagan, Rama Krishna, C.; Handa, R.: Dynamic cluster based privacy-preserving multi-keyword search over encrypted cloud data. In: Proceedings of 6th IEEE International Conference on Cloud System and Big Data Engineering, pp. 146–151. Noida, India (2016)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Khan, N.S.; Rama Krishna, C.; Khurana, A.: Secure ranked fuzzy multi-keyword search over outsourced encrypted cloud data. In: Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communication Technology, pp. 241–249. Allahabad (2014)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Miao, Y.; Ma, J.; Wei, F.; Liu, Z.; Wang, X.A.; Lu, C.: Vcse: Verifiable conjunctive keywords search over encrypted data without secure-channel. Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications pp. 1–13 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Li, J.; Ma, R.; Guan, H.: Tees: An efficient search scheme over encrypted data on mobile cloud. IEEE Trans. Cloud Comput. 5(3) (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Manning, C.D.; Raghavan, P.; Hinrich, S.: Introduction to Information Retrieval. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2009)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fu, Z.; Huang, F.; Ren, K.; Weng, J.; Wang, C.: Privacy-preserving smart semantic search based on conceptual graphs over encrypted outsourced data. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 12(8), 1874–1884 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lewis, D.D.: Reuters-21578 Text Categorization Collection Data Set. https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Reuters-21578+Text+Categorization+Collection. [Accessed: 01-05-2016]

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSE DepartmentNational Institute of Technical Teachers Training and ResearchChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.CSE DepartmentUIET, Panjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations