Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 1447–1458 | Cite as

Mechanical Model of Drilling Robot Driven by the Differential Pressure of Drilling Fluid

  • Qingyou Liu
  • Jianguo Zhao
  • Haiyan ZhuEmail author
  • Wei Zhang
Research Article - Mechanical Engineering


A new type of drilling robot driven by drilling fluid is proposed, whose traction force is provided by differential pressure inside and outside of the drilling robot. The fluid mechanical model of differential pressure is established based on the principle of pressure drop. The equations for calculating the traction force of the robot in no-load condition and load condition are derived respectively. The dynamic model of drilling robot is established and the calculation method of key parameters such as weight on bit (WOB) and rate of penetration (ROP) in the dynamic model is derived. The influence of flow rate of drilling fluid on ROP/velocity and traction force of the drilling robot is analyzed. Among them, with the increasing of flow rate, the ROP/velocity and the traction force of drilling robot increases in a nearly linear trend. In the no-load condition (traction process), the drilling robot will be in acceleration until the telescopic cylinder stops pumping drilling fluid. In the load condition (drilling process), the drilling robot will reach a balance with the mechanical drilling rate within 0.1s. The proposed drilling robot can provide the possibility for the downhole operations in horizontal well with long displacement or in the condition of large traction force request. What’s more, this paper will provide a theoretical guidance for the control of ROP and WOB in the drilling process, and promote the application of drilling robots.


Drilling robot Downhole robot Dynamic model Horizontal well Drilling fluid drive Traction force 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This work is supported by the Science and Technology Project of Sichuan Province (Nos. 2013GZ0150, 2014GZ0121, 2015SZ0010) and the Science and Technology Project of Nanchong City (No. NC17SY4019). This work is also supported by Research Project of Key Laboratory of Fluid and Power Machinery (Xihua University).


  1. 1.
    Hallundbæk, J.: Well tractors for highly deviated and horizontal wells. In: Europec 1994 of the SPE European Petroleum Conference Held in London (1994)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Searight, T.L.: Wireline tractor production logging experience in Australian horizontal wells. In: 1996 SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition (1998)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bybee, K.: New downhole tool extends coiled-tubing reach. New J. Pet. Technol. 52(6), 32–34 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hallundbaek, J.; Ostvang, K.; Haukvik, J.; Skeie, T.; Heijer, A.D.: Wireline well tractor: case histories. In: Offshore Technology Conference (1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hallundbæk, J.: Radial piston motor or pump. US5391059, 21 Feb 1995Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Denney, D.: Wireline-tractor production logging in horizontal wells. J. Pet. Technol. 51(3), 80–81 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Local, E.: Wireline tractor production logging experience in Australian horizontal wells. In: SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Logging while Tractoring GE Oil & Gas[EB/OL]. Accessed 6 June 2018
  9. 9.
    Stuart-Bruges, W.P.; Searight, T.L.; Harris, N.G.: Centralizer for wireline tools. US:US7090007, 15 Aug 2006Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lam, F.S.; Joseph, P.C.; Brian, S.: Wireline tractor technology supports fast tracking new well design. In: ADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schwanitz, B.: Isolation valve contingencies using wireline stroker and tractor technologies. In: 2009 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Giem, G.; Sheiretov, T.; Couble, Y.: Wireline tractor for through-tubing intervention in wells with barefoot openhole completions. In: SPE/CoTA Coiled Tubing Well Intevention Conference Exhibtion (2018)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fouche, P.-A.; Vander Poorten, R.: Wireline tractor advanced restriction navigation. In: SPE/CoTA Coiled Tubing Well Intevention Conference Exhibtion (2018)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Doering, F.W.; Dupree, W.D.: Chain drive system. US:7222682, 29 May 2007Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ueland, G.; Mellemstrand, J.: Device for a pulling tool for use in pipes and boreholes for the production of oil and gas. US:US7363989, 29 April 2008Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hallundbæk, J.: Downhole driving unit having a hydraulic motor in a wheel. US:US9435167, 6 Sept 2016Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ludwig, W.N.: Well tractor. US:14/406889, 14 June 2012Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li, Y.; Liu, Q.; Chen, Y.; Ren, T.: Design and analysis of an active helical drive downhole tractor. Chin. J. Mech. Eng. 30(2), 428–437 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guerrero, J.C.; Doering, F.W.; Roy, C.J.: Open hole tractor with tracks. US:7156192, 2 Jan 2007Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Norman, B.M.; Ronald, E.B.; Rudolph, E.E.: Puller-thruster downhole tool. US:US6003606, 21 Nov 1999Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jeff, F.; John, W.; Christian, B.M.; Bob, D.; Bob, G.; Chuck, W.; Den Heijer, A.: Tractor-conveyed sensors and chemical packer are utilized to remediate an extended-reach horizontal uncemented slotted liner completion in a siliceous shale reservoir. In: SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and Western Regional Meeting (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alden, M.; Arif, F.; Billingham, M.: Advancing downhole conveyance. Oilfield Rev. 16(3), 30–43 (2004)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fang, D.; Shang, J.; Luo, Z.; Wu, G.; Liu, Y.: Mechanical design of downhole tractor based on two-way self-locking mechanism. Mater. Sci. Eng. 324, 1–5 (2018)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Qiao, J.; Shang, J.; Chen, X.; Luo, Z.; Zhang, X.: Unilateral self-locking mechanism for inchworm in-pipe robot. J. Cent. South Univ. 17(5), 1043–1048 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Billingham, M.; El-Toukhy, M.A.; Hashem, K.M.; Hassaan, M.; Lorente, M.; Sheiretov, T.; Loth, M.: Conveyance—down and out in the oil field. Oilfield Rev. 23(2), 18–31 (2011)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu, Q.; Zheng, W.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhu, H.: Two-way locking mechanism design for telescopic downhole tractor. J. Southwest Pet. Univ. Sci. Ed. 40(1), 1–10 (2018)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu, Q.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, H.; Zheng, W.; Yang, Y.: A novel double bevel support structure for downhole robot. Arab. J. Sci. Eng. 1(2191–4281), 1–11 (2018)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ma, D.; Li, G.; Huang, Z.; Niu, J.; Hou, C.; Liu, M.; Li, J.: A model of calculating the circulation pressure loss in coiled tubing ultra-short radius radial drilling. Pet. Explor. Dev. 39(4), 494–499 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen, X.; Qin, C.: The development and application of indented long stroke hydraulic thruster. China Pet. Mach. 43(6), 20–23 (2015)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Xu, B.: Research on Output Performance Analysis and Application of Positive Displacement Motor (PDM). Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (2007)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Samuel, G.R.; Miska, S.: Optimization of drilling parameters with the performance of multilobe positive displacement motor (PDM). In: IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology (1998)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Maldla, E.E.; Ohara, S.: Field verification of drilling models and computerized selection of drill bit, WOB, and drillstring rotation. SPE Drill. Eng. 6(3), 189–195 (1989)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Peterson, J.L.: Diamond drilling model verified in field and laboratory tests. J. Pet. Technol. 28(2), 213–222 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Motahhari, H.R.; Hareland, G.; Nygaard, R.; Bond, B.: Method of optimizing motor and bit performance for maximum ROP. J. Can. Pet. Technol. 48(6), 44–49 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhu, H.; Liu, Q.; Wang, T.: Reducing the bottom-hole differential pressure by vortex and hydraulic jet methods. J. Vibroeng. 15(5), 2224–2249 (2014)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eren, T.; Kok, M.V.: A new drilling performance benchmarking: ROP indexing methodology. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 163, 387–398 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qingyou Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jianguo Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Haiyan Zhu
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  • Wei Zhang
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Mechatronic EngineeringSouthwest Petroleum UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and ExploitationSouthwest Petroleum UniversityChengduChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Fluid and Power Machinery of Ministry of Education (Xihua University)Ministry of EducationChengduChina
  4. 4.Drilling Department of China Petroleum Group Marine Engineering Co. Ltd.TianjinChina
  5. 5.Southwest Petroleum UniversityChengduChina

Personalised recommendations