Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 563–570 | Cite as

Charged System Search Algorithm for the Optimum Cost Design of Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Retaining Walls

Research Article - Civil Engineering

Abstract

In this paper, optimal design of reinforced concrete cantilever retaining walls is performed under static loads utilizing the charged system search (CSS) method. This design is based on ACI 318-05, and optimization is on the basis of cost function of materials used in retaining walls and their constructions. This function is minimized while satisfying the design constraints. Performance of the CSS algorithm is compared to that of the improved harmony search algorithm. Four examples are optimized and their convergence curves are compared.

Keywords

Optimization Reinforced concrete Cantilever retaining walls Charged system search Improved harmony search 

List of Symbols

tt

Top stem thickness

tb

Bottom stem and key thickness

HT

Top stem height

HB

Bottom stem height

LT

Toe length

LH

Heel length

L

Total length of the base of the footing

hf

Footing thickness

γb

Density of the fill

φ

Internal friction angle of the fill

β

Backfill slope

μ

Base friction coefficient

γc

Density of the concrete

Ww,t

Weight of the top stem

Ww,b

Weight of the bottom stem

Wb

Weight of the fill on the heel

Ws

Surcharge weight

hk

Key depth

hp

Soil over toe

C1

Cost of the concrete

C2

Cost of the steel

C3

Cost of the concreting

C4

Cost of the erecting reinforcement

F1, F2

Type of the back fills

T1, …, T7

The selected variables

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Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehran-16Iran
  2. 2.Building and Housing Research CentreTehran-14Iran

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