Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 563–570 | Cite as

Charged System Search Algorithm for the Optimum Cost Design of Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Retaining Walls

  • A. Kaveh
  • A. F. Behnam
Research Article - Civil Engineering


In this paper, optimal design of reinforced concrete cantilever retaining walls is performed under static loads utilizing the charged system search (CSS) method. This design is based on ACI 318-05, and optimization is on the basis of cost function of materials used in retaining walls and their constructions. This function is minimized while satisfying the design constraints. Performance of the CSS algorithm is compared to that of the improved harmony search algorithm. Four examples are optimized and their convergence curves are compared.


Optimization Reinforced concrete Cantilever retaining walls Charged system search Improved harmony search 

List of Symbols


Top stem thickness


Bottom stem and key thickness


Top stem height


Bottom stem height


Toe length


Heel length


Total length of the base of the footing


Footing thickness


Density of the fill


Internal friction angle of the fill


Backfill slope


Base friction coefficient


Density of the concrete


Weight of the top stem


Weight of the bottom stem


Weight of the fill on the heel


Surcharge weight


Key depth


Soil over toe


Cost of the concrete


Cost of the steel


Cost of the concreting


Cost of the erecting reinforcement

F1, F2

Type of the back fills

T1, …, T7

The selected variables


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Copyright information

© King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Fundamental Studies in Structural EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehran-16Iran
  2. 2.Building and Housing Research CentreTehran-14Iran

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