Journal of NeuroVirology

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 42–49 | Cite as

The bovine herpesvirus 1 regulatory proteins, bICP4 and bICP22, are expressed during the escape from latency

  • Junqing Guo
  • Qingmei Li
  • Clinton JonesEmail author


Following acute infection of mucosal surfaces by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), sensory neurons are a primary site for lifelong latency. Stress, as mimicked by the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone, consistently induces reactivation from latency. Two viral regulatory proteins (VP16 and bICP0) are expressed within 1 h after calves latently infected with BoHV-1 are treated with dexamethasone. Since the immediate early transcription unit 1 (IEtu1) promoter regulates both BoHV-1 infected cell protein 0 (bICP0) and bICP4 expressions, we hypothesized that the bICP4 protein is also expressed during early stages of reactivation from latency. In this study, we tested whether bICP4 and bICP22, the only other BoHV-1 protein known to be encoded by an immediate early gene, were expressed during reactivation from latency by generating peptide-specific antiserum to each protein. bICP4 and bICP22 protein expression were detected in trigeminal ganglionic (TG) neurons during early phases of dexamethasone-induced reactivation from latency, operationally defined as the escape from latency. Conversely, bICP4 and bICP22 were not readily detected in TG neurons of latently infected calves. In summary, it seems clear that all proteins encoded by known BoHV-1 IE genes (bICP4, bICP22, and bICP0) were expressed during early stages of dexamethasone-induced reactivation from latency.


Bovine herpesvirus 1 Stress-induced reactivation from latency ICP4 ICP22 


Funding information

This research was supported by grants from the USDA-NIFA Competitive Grants Program (13-01041 and 16-09370) and National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke of the NIH (R21NS102290), support from the Oklahoma Center for Respiratory and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health Centers for Biomedical Research Excellence Grant No. P20GM103648), and funds derived from the Sitlington Endowment.

Compliance with ethical standards

Experiments were performed in accordance with the American Association of Laboratory Animal Care guidelines and the University of Nebraska IACUC committee.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Animal ImmunologyHenan Academy of Agricultural SciencesZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health SciencesOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA

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