Journal of NeuroVirology

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 205–212 | Cite as

A diffusion tensor imaging and neurocognitive study of HIV-positive children who are HAART-naïve “slow progressors”

  • Jacqueline Hoare
  • Jean-Paul Fouche
  • Bruce Spottiswoode
  • Kirsty Donald
  • Nicole Philipps
  • Heidre Bezuidenhout
  • Christine Mulligan
  • Victoria Webster
  • Charity Oduro
  • Leigh Schrieff
  • Robert Paul
  • Heather Zar
  • Kevin Thomas
  • Dan Stein
Article

Abstract

There are few neuropsychological or neuroimaging studies of HIV-positive children with “slow progression”. “Slow progressors” are typically defined as children or adolescents who were vertically infected with HIV, but who received no or minimal antiretroviral therapy. We compared 12 asymptomatic HIV-positive children (8 to 12 years) with matched controls on a neuropsychological battery as well as diffusion tensor imaging in a masked region of interest analysis focusing on the corpus callosum, internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. The “slow progressor” group performed significantly worse than controls on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Verbal and Performance IQ scales, and on standardised tests of visuospatial processing, visual memory and executive functioning. “Slow progressors” had lower fractional anisotropy (FA), higher mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) in the corpus callosum (p = <0.05), and increased MD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, compared to controls. A correlation was found between poor performance on a test of executive function and a test of attention with corpus callosum FA, and a test of executive function with lowered FA in the superior longitudinal fasiculus. These data suggest that demyelination as reflected by the increase in RD may be a prominent disease process in paediatric HIV infection.

Keywords

Imaging Diffusion tensor HIV/AIDS Paediatric Cognitive impairment 

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Copyright information

© Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline Hoare
    • 1
    • 7
  • Jean-Paul Fouche
    • 1
  • Bruce Spottiswoode
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kirsty Donald
    • 4
  • Nicole Philipps
    • 1
  • Heidre Bezuidenhout
    • 4
  • Christine Mulligan
    • 4
  • Victoria Webster
    • 5
  • Charity Oduro
    • 5
  • Leigh Schrieff
    • 5
  • Robert Paul
    • 6
  • Heather Zar
    • 4
  • Kevin Thomas
    • 5
  • Dan Stein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Mental HealthUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human BiologyUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Radiological Sciences and OncologyStellenbosch UniversityStellenboschSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent HealthUCTCape TownSouth Africa
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  6. 6.Department of Psychology and Behavioural NeuroscienceUniversity of MissouriSt. LouisUSA
  7. 7.Division of Liaison Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Mental HealthUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa

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