Plasma gelsolin accumulates in macrophage nodules in brains of simian immunodeficiency virus infected rhesus macaques
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Plasma gelsolin (pGSN), an isoform 1, is secreted by various types of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery, but not by the liver. pGSN circulates in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); however, its concentration in CSF is approximately twenty times lower than in plasma. It has been shown that several types of cells such as oligodendrocytes, neurons, and/or astrocytes contribute to the overall pool of pGSN in the CNS. Further, it has been postulated that pGSN plays multiple roles during microbial infection and modulates inflammatory responses; however, the exact mechanism of regulation is not known. We previously showed that levels of pGSN in CSF of individuals with advanced neurocognitive impairment due to HIV infection of the brain are decreased. Here, we show that macrophages express significant amounts of pGSN in response to HIV infection in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry of simian immunodeficiency virus infected rhesus monkey brains, we show that increased levels of pGSN are present in macrophage nodules creating locally a high level of this protein within the brain. This may not be reflected by the overall decreased level in the distinct CSF compartment.