Mammal Research

, Volume 64, Issue 1, pp 99–107 | Cite as

Wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in the north of Western Siberia: history of expansion and modern distribution

  • Nickolay MarkovEmail author
  • Nadezhda Pankova
  • Ilya Filippov
Original Paper


We summarized the records of wild boar in the northern part of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansy Autonomous Okrug–Yugra) for 1984–2016 to describe the expansion, modern distribution, and contribution of natural expansion and intentional release in establishing its population in the study area. We analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of the presence of wild boar using two parameters: minimum site occupancy and constancy of the presence of the species in various parts of the region. The relative importance of intentional release and natural expansion was assessed by comparing the distances to areas of releases and to the borders of neighboring regions. The wild boar naturally expanded from the southwestern regions to the northern Western Siberia, the role of release was insignificant. We suggest that river valleys were main pathways of expansion. The southern and central parts of the region (up to approximately 62° n.l.) are permanently inhabited by wild boar and can be treated as part of the species’ geographical range.


Sus scrofa Western Siberia Expansion Geographical range Releases 


Funding information

This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 17-04-00533)

Supplementary material

13364_2018_378_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (259 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 258 kb)
13364_2018_378_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (143 kb)
ESM 2 (PDF 142 kb)
13364_2018_378_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (291 kb)
ESM 3 (PDF 290 kb)
13364_2018_378_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (252 kb)
ESM 4 (PDF 251 kb)


  1. Azarov V, Dekov V (1990) Wild ungulates of Tuymenskaya oblast’ and goals of their rational exploitation. In: Wildlife resources of Siberia. Nauka, Novosibirsk, pp 181–184 [In Russian]Google Scholar
  2. Ballari SA, Cuevas MF, Cirignoli S et al (2015) Invasive wild boar in Argentina: using protected areas as a research platform to determine distribution, impacts and management. Biol Invasions 17:1595. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrios-Garcia MN, Ballari SA (2012) Impact of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in its introduced and native range: a review. Biol Invasions 14(11):2283–2300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bolshakov V, Korytin N, Markov N, Pogodin N (2009) Ungulates (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) in Middle Urals. UrO RAN, Ekaterinburg [In Russian]Google Scholar
  5. Bratton SP (1975) The effect of the European wild boar, Sus scrofa, on gray beech forest in the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecology 56:1356–1366. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buligina ON, Razuvaev VN, Korshunova NN, Shvetz NV (2014a) Description of the database of average monthly temperatures on the stations of Russia. Certificate of the state registration of the database 2015620394Google Scholar
  7. Buligina ON, Razuvaev VN, Korshunova NN, Shvetz NV (2014b) Description of the database of total precipitation on the stations of Russia. Certificate of the state registration of the database 2015620394Google Scholar
  8. Danilkin A (2002) Pigs (Suidae). GEOS, Moscow [in Russian]Google Scholar
  9. Danilov PI, Panchenko DV (2012) Expansion and some ecological features of wild boar beyond the northern boundary of its historical range in European Russia. Russ J Ecol 43:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De la Torre A, Bosch J, Iglesias I et al (2015) Assessing the risk of African swine fever introduction into the European Union by wild boar. Transbound Emerg Dis 62:272–279. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dormann CF, McPherson J, Araújo MB et al (2007) Methods to account for spatial autocorrelation in the analysis of species distributional data: a review. Ecography (Cop) 30:609–628. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elith J, Phillips SJ, Hastie T, Dudík M, Chee YE, Yates CJ (2011) A statistical explanation of MaxEnt for ecologists. Divers Distrib 17(1):43–57Google Scholar
  13. Engeman RM, Stevens A, Allen J, Dunlap J, Daniel M, Teague D, Constantin B (2007) Feral swine management for conservation of an imperiled wetland habitat: Florida’s vanishing seepage slopes. Biol Conserv 134:440–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Erkinaro E, Heikura K, Lindgren E, Pulliainen E (1982) Occurrence and spread of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) in eastern Fennoscandia. Memo Soc Fauna Flora Fenn 58:39–47Google Scholar
  15. Fadeev E (1973) Population dynamics of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in European Russia. Zool Zhurnal 52:1214–1219 [in Russian]Google Scholar
  16. Fadeev E (1975) Wild boar in the European part of the USSR. Okhota i okhotnichye khoz-vo 2:16–17 [In Russian]Google Scholar
  17. Gallé L, Margóczi K, Kovács É et al (1995) River valleys: are they ecological corridors? Tiscia 29:53–58Google Scholar
  18. Groisman PY, Gutman G (eds) (2013) Regional environmental changes in Siberia and their global consequences. Springer, Dordrecht, p 357Google Scholar
  19. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4(1) 9ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Hone J (1988) Feral pig rooting in a mountain forest and woodland. Distribution, abundance and relationships with environmental variables. Aust J Ecol 13:393–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ippolitov II, Kabanov MV, Loginov SV, Kharyutkina EV (2008) Structure and dynamic of meteorological fields on the Asian region of Russia in the period of the global warming for 1975–2005. J Sib Fed Univ Biol 4(1):323–344Google Scholar
  22. Janeau G, Cargnelutti B, Cousse S et al (1995) Daily movement pattern variation in wild boar (Sus scrofa L.). IBEX J Mt Ecol 3:98–101Google Scholar
  23. Keuling O, Stier N, Roth M (2008) How does hunting influence activity and spatial usage in wild boar Sus scrofa L.? Eur J Wildl Res 54:729–737. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Keuling O, Podgorski T, Monaco A, Meletti M et al (2018) Eurasian wild boar Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758). In: Meletti M, Meijaard E (eds) Ecology, conservation and management of wild pigs and peccaries. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 202–233Google Scholar
  25. Kirkpatrick M, Barton NH (1997) Evolution of a species' range. Am Nat 150(1):1–23Google Scholar
  26. Kokko H, Sutherland WJ (2001) Ecological traps in changing environments: ecological and evolutionary consequences of a behaviourally mediated Allee effect. Evol Ecol Res 3:537–551Google Scholar
  27. Lemel J, Truvé J, Söderberg B (2003) Variation in ranging and activity behaviour of European wild boar Sus scrofa in Sweden. Wildl Biol 9(Suppl):29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Manly BFJ, McDonald LL, Thomas DL et al (2002) Resource selection by animals: statistical design and analysis for field studies, second edi edn. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  29. Markov N (1997) Population dynamics of wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Sverdlovsk Oblast and its relation to climatic factors. Russ J Ecol 28:269–274Google Scholar
  30. Markov N, Neifeld N, Mcdonald LL (2005) Analysis of wild boar (Sus scrofa L ., 1758) distribution in Northeast of European Russia: a quantitative approach. Russ J Theriol 4:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mashkin VI, Kulpin AA, Kupriyanov IN (2008) Wild boar (Sus scrofa) of the European north of Russia. Bull Mosc Soc Nat 113:19–27 [In Russian with English summary]Google Scholar
  32. Massei G, Genov PV (2004) The environmental impact of wild boar. Galemys 16:135–145Google Scholar
  33. Massei G, Kindberg J, Licoppe A, Gačić D, Šprem N, Kamler J, Baubet E, Hohmann U, Monaco A, Ozoliņš J, Cellina S, Podgórski T, Fonseca C, Markov N, Pokorny B, Rosell C, Náhlik A (2015) Wild boar populations up, numbers of hunters down? A review of trends and implications for Europe. Pest Manag Sci 71:492–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Merino LM, Carpinetti BN (2003) Feral pig Sus scrofa population estimates in Bahia Samborombon conservation area, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Mastozoología Neotrop 10:269–275Google Scholar
  35. Moskvina N, Kozin V (2001) Landshaftnoye raionirovaniye Khanty-Mansiiskogo okruga. Polygraphist (Ekaterinburg), Khanty-Mansiisk [In Russian]Google Scholar
  36. Pescador M, Sanguinetti J, Pastore H, Peris S (2009) Expansion of the introduced wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Andean region, Argentinean Patagonia. Galemys 21:121–132Google Scholar
  37. Pleshak T, Minyaev A (1986) Wild boar in Arkhangelskaya oblast. Okhota i okhotnichye khoz-vo 7:14–15 [In Russian]Google Scholar
  38. Podgórski T, Baś G, Jędrzejewska B, Sönnichsen L, Śnieżko S, Jędrzejewski W, Okarma H (2013) Spatiotemporal behavioral plasticity of wild boar (Sus scrofa) under contrasting conditions of human pressure: primeval forest and metropolitan area. J Mammal 94:109–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. QGIS Development Team (2014) QGIS geographic information system 2.2.0 - Valmiera. qgisorgGoogle Scholar
  40. Remeš V (2000) How can maladaptive habitat choice generate source-sink population dynamics? Oikos 91(3):579–582Google Scholar
  41. Rusakov O, Timofeeva E (1984) Wild boar (ecology, resources, economic importance in north-west of the USSR). Izd-vo Leningr. un-ta, Leningrad [In Russian]Google Scholar
  42. Saito M, Koike F, Momose H, Mihira T, Uematsu S, Ohtani T, Sekiyama K (2012) Forecasting the range expansion of a recolonising wild boar Sus scrofa population. Wildl Biol 18:383–392. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shapiro SS, Wilk MB, Chen HJ (1968) A comparative study of various tests for normality. J Am Stat Assoc 63(324):1343–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singer F (1981) Wild pig populations in national parks. Environ Manag 5:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Skews O (2015) History of the introduction and present distribution of the european wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Chile. Mastozoologia Neotropical 22(1):113–124Google Scholar
  46. Soley-Guardia M, Radosavljevic A, Rivera JL, Anderson RP (2014) The effect of spatially marginal localities in modelling species niches and distributions. J Biogeogr 41:1390–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Spitz F, Janeau G (1990) Spatial strategies—an attempt to classify daily movements of wild boar. Acta Theriol (Warsz) 35:129–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. StatSoft, Inc (2007) STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 8.0.
  49. Status of resources game animals in Russian Federation in 2003–2007. Information & analytical materials (2007) Game animals of Russia (biology, protection, study of resources, rational use). Issue 8. Moscow, FGU Centrokhotkontrol'. 2007. 164 p. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  50. Status of resources game animals in Russian Federation in 2008–2011. Information & analytical materials (2011) Game animals of Russia (biology, protection, study of resources, rational use). Issue 9. Moscow, Physicheskaya kultura. 219 p. [In Russian]Google Scholar
  51. Stephens PA, Zaumyslova OY, Miquelle DG et al (2006) Estimating population density from indirect sign: track counts and the Formozov-Malyshev-Pereleshin formula. Anim Conserv 9:339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Thurfjell H, Ball JP, Åhlén PA, Kornacher P, Dettki H, Sjöberg K (2009) Habitat use and spatial patterns of wild boar Sus scrofa (L.): agricultural fields and edges. Eur J Wildl Res 55(5):517–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vernesi C, Crestanell B, Pecchioli D et al (2003) The genetic impact of demographic decline and reintroduction in the wild boar (Sus scrofa): a microsatellite analysis. Mol Ecol 12:585–595. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Waithman JD, Sweitzer RA, Van Vuren D, Drew JD, Brinkhaus AJ, Gardner IA, Boyce WM (1999) Range expansion, population sizes, and management of wild pigs in California. J Wildl Manag 63:298–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Plant and Animal EcologyUral Branch of Russian Academy of SciencesEkaterinburgRussia
  2. 2.Oksky State Biosphere Nature ReserveBrykin BorRussia
  3. 3.Yugorsky State UniversityKanty-MansiiskRussia

Personalised recommendations