Mammal Research

, Volume 61, Issue 4, pp 327–335 | Cite as

Pine marten vs. stone marten in agricultural lowlands: a landscape-scale, genetic survey

  • Alessandro Balestrieri
  • Aritz Ruiz-González
  • Enrica Capelli
  • Maria Vergara
  • Claudio Prigioni
  • Nicola Saino
Original Paper


We applied molecular analysis methods to faecal samples to determine both the overall level of occupancy for pine marten (Martes martes) and current stone marten (Martes foina) distribution in the western Po plain. Surveys were carried out in a 10 × 10-km grid, applying a hybrid sampling design. The specific identification of faecal samples was accomplished either by a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method or by amplifying and sequencing a 330-bp mtDNA fragment of the control region (D-loop). Identification success was 93.7 % by the PCR-RFLP and 71.7 % by DNA sequencing. Overall, we collected 47 pine marten records and 24 stone marten records. Thirty-six squares (81.8 %) were found to be positive for at least one marten species, the distribution range of the two species scarcely overlapping. The pine marten was shown to be widespread in lowland areas on the north bank of the River Po, which is probably acting as a barrier to its expansion. In this area, stone marten records were few, while it is was widespread on the south bank of the river. Pine marten expansion may have forced the stone marten to restrict itself to less suitable agricultural and urban areas. Nonetheless, we cannot exclude that stone marten range and/or numbers may being declining as a consequence of pine marten expansion. Six pine marten samples belonged to the Central-Northern European (CNE) phylogroup. The relatively high percentage of CNE martens is consistent with the hypothesis of an ongoing expansion of Alpine and trans-Alpine pine marten populations.


Martes martes Martes foina Range variation PCR-RFLP Phylogroups 



This study has been partially funded by the Basque Government through the Research group on “Systematics, Biogeography and Population Dynamics” (Ref. IT317-10; GIC10/76; IT575/13), the SAIOTEK research programme (Ref: S-PE11UN028). Ruiz-González holds a post doc fellowship awarded by the Dept. of Education Universities and Research of the Basque Government (Ref. DKR-2012-64). A. Balestrieri was supported by a Ph.D. fellowship awarded by the Dept. of Biosciences of the University of Milan. Lesley C. Wright kindly revised the English language. The comments and suggestions of two anonymous referees helped to greatly improve the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13364_2016_295_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 21.0 kb)


  1. Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215:403–410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andow DA, Kareiva PM, Levin SA, Okuba A (1990) Spread of invading organisms. Landscape Ecol 4:177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ARPA (2015) L’idrologia in Piemonte—2014. ARPA Piemonte, TorinoGoogle Scholar
  4. Aunapuu M, Oksanen T (2003) Habitat selection of coexisting competitors: a study of small mustelids in northern Norway. Evol Ecol 17:371–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balestrieri A (2016) Distribution and ecology of lowland pine marten Martes martes L. 1758. PhD thesis in Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of MilanGoogle Scholar
  6. Balestrieri A, Remonti L, Ruiz-González A, Gómez-Moliner BJ, Vergara M, Prigioni C (2010) Range expansion of the pine marten (Martes martes) in an agricultural landscape matrix (NW Italy. Mamm Biol 75:412–419Google Scholar
  7. Balestrieri A, Remonti L, Ruiz-González A, Vergara M, Capelli E, Gómez-Moliner BJ, Prigioni C (2011) Food habits of genetically identified pine martens (Martes martes) expanding in agricultural lowlands (NW Italy. Acta Theriol 56:199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balestrieri A, Remonti L, Capra RB, Canova L, Prigioni C (2013) Food habits of the stone marten (Martes foina) (Mammalia: Carnivora) in plain areas of northern Italy prior to pine marten (M. martes) spreading. It J Zool. doi: 10.1080/11250003.2012.730067 Google Scholar
  9. Balestrieri A, Remonti L, Morotti L, Saino N, Prigioni C, Guidali F (2015a) Multilevel habitat preferences of Apodemus sylvaticus and Clethrionomys glareolus in an intensively cultivated agricultural landscape. Ethol Ecol Evol doi. doi: 10.1080/03949370.2015.1077893 Google Scholar
  10. Balestrieri A, Remonti L, Ruiz-González A, Zenato M, Gazzola A, Vergara M, Dettori EE, Saino N, Capelli E, Gómez-Moliner BJ, Guidali F, Prigioni C (2015b) Distribution and habitat use by pine marten Martes martes in a riparian corridor crossing intensively cultivated lowlands. Ecol Res 30:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balestrieri A, Mosini A, Saino N (2016) Distribuzione ed ecologia di martora e faina nel Parco Nazionale della Val Grande. Tecnica report, Dept. of Biosciences, University of Milan.Google Scholar
  12. Barrull J, Mate I, Ruiz-Olmo J, Casanovas JG, Gosàlbez J, Salicrú M (2014) Factors and mechanisms that explain coexistence in a Mediterranean carnivore assemblage: an integrated study based on camera trapping and diet. Mamm Biol 79(2):123–131Google Scholar
  13. Benton TG, Vickery JA, Wilson JD (2003) Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key? Trends Ecol Evol 18:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bon M, Paolucci P, Mezzavilla F, Battisti R, Vernier E (1995) Atlante dei Mammiferi del Veneto. Lav Soc Ven Sci Nat 21(Suppl)Google Scholar
  15. Bonesi L, Chanin P, Macdonald DW (2004) Competition between Eurasian otter Lutra lutra and American mink Mustela vison probed by niche shift. Oikos 106:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brooks TM, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Rylands AB, Konstant WR, Flick P, Pilgrim J, Oldifeld S, Magin G, Hilton-Taylor C (2002) Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conserv Biol 16:909–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Camerano P, Grieco C, Terzuolo PG (2010) I boschi planiziali: conoscenza, conservazione e valorizzazione. Regione Piemonte e Blu edizioni, TorinoGoogle Scholar
  18. Cianfrani C, Le Lay G, Maiorano L, Satizábal HF, Loy A, Guisan A (2011) Adapting global conservation strategies to climate change at the European scale: the otter as a flagship species. Biol Conserv 144:2068–2080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coles TF, Southey JM, Forbes I, Clough T (1989) River wildlife data bases and their value for sensitive environmental management. Regul Rivers: Res Mgmt 4(2):179–189Google Scholar
  20. Cousins SAO, Auffret AG, Lindgren J, Tränk L (2015) Regional-scale land-cover change during the 20th century and its consequences for biodiversity. Ambio 44:S17–S27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Crooks KR, Soulé ME (1999) Mesopredator release and avifauna extinctions in a fragmented system. Nature 400:563–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Croose E, Birks JDS, Schofield HW (2013) Expansion zone survey of pine marten (Martes martes) distribution in Scotland. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 520Google Scholar
  23. Davis MB, Shaw RG (2001) Range shifts and adaptive responses to quaternary climate change. Science 292:673–679CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Davison A, Birks JD, Brookes RC, Messenger JE, Griffiths HI (2001) Mitochondrial phylogeography and population history of pine martens Martes martes compared with polecats Mustela putorius. Mol Ecol 10(10):2479–2488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Davison A, Birks JDS, Brookes RC, Braithwaite TC, Messenger JE (2002) On the origin of faeces: morphological versus molecular methods for surveying rare carnivores from their scats. J Zool (London) 257:141–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Marinis A, Lapini L (1994) Collections of Italian Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) housed in Italian museums. Boll Mus reg Sci nat Torino 12:255–325Google Scholar
  27. Delibes M (1983) Interspecific competition and the habitat of the stone marten Martes foina (Erxleben, 1777) in Europe. Acta Zool Fenn 174:229–231Google Scholar
  28. Falcucci A, Maiorano L, Boitani L (2007) Changes in land-use/land-cover patterns in Italy and their implications for biodiversity conservation. Landscape Ecol 22:617–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Galetti M, Bovendorp RS, Fadini R, Gussoni CA, Rodrigues M, Alavarez AD, Guimarães P Jr, Alves K (2009) Hyper abundant mesopredators and non-random bird extinction in an Atlantic forest island. Rev Bras Zool 26:288–298Google Scholar
  30. Gaston KJ (2003) The structure and dynamics of geographic ranges. Oxford Univ, Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  31. Genovesi P, De Marinis AM (2003a) Martes foina. In: Boitani L, Lovari S, Vigna Taglianti A (eds) fauna d’Italia Mammalia III, Carnivora—Artiodactyla. Calderini, Bologna, pp. 117–128Google Scholar
  32. Genovesi P, De Marinis AM (2003b) Martes martes. In: Boitani L, Lovari S, Vigna Taglianti A (eds) Fauna d’Italia. Mammalia III, Carnivora—Artiodactyla. Calderini, Bologna, pp. 106–117Google Scholar
  33. Gherardi M, Lorito S, Vianello G, Vittori Antisari L (2009) Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of soil depletion due to urbanisation in the areas near the Po River. EQA – Environmental quality 2:29–38Google Scholar
  34. Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for windows 95/98/NT. Nuc Acid S41:95–98Google Scholar
  35. Hastings A (1996) Models of spatial spread: is the theory complete? Ecology 77:1675–1679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hersteinsson P, Macdonald DW (1992) Interspecific competition and the geographical distribution of red and arctic foxes Vulpes vulpes and Alopex lagopus. Oikos 64:505–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jepsen JU, Topping CJ (2004) Modelling roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a gradient of forest fragmentation: behavioural plasticity and choice of cover. Can J Zool 82:1528–1541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jordan NR, Messenger J, Turner P, Croose E, Birks J, O’Reilly C (2012) Molecular comparison of historical and contemporary pine marten (Martes martes) populations in the British Isles: evidence of differing origins and fates, and implications for conservation management. Conserv Genet 13:1195–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Larroque J, Ruette S, Vandel J-M, Devillard S (2015) Where to sleep in a rural landscape? A comparative study of resting sites pattern in two syntopic Martes species. Ecography 38:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lassini P, Monzani F, Pileri P (2007) A green vision for the renewal of the Lombardy landscape. In: Pedroli B, Van Doorn A, De Blust G, Paracchini ML, Wascher D, Bunce F (eds), Europe’s living landscapes. Essays on exploring our identity in the countryside, Landscape Europe/KNNVGoogle Scholar
  41. Librado P, Rozas J (2009) DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics 25:1451–1452CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Macdonald D, Crabtree JR, Weisinger G, Dax T, Stamou N, Fleury P, Gutierrez Lazpita J, Gibon A (2000) Agricultural abandonment in mountain areas of Europe: environmental consequences and policy response. J Environ Manag 59:47–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. MacKenzie DI, Royle JA (2005) Designing occupancy studies: general advice and allocating survey effort. J Appl Ecol 42:1105–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. MacKenzie DI, Nichols JD, Hines JE, Knutson MG, Franklin AD (2003) Estimating site occupancy, colonization and local extinction probabilities when a species is not detected with certainty. Ecology 84:2200–2207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mantovani S (2010) Recenti segnalazioni della martora, Martes martes, in provincia di Cremona. Pianura 25:95–107Google Scholar
  46. Marchesi P, Lachat N, Lienhard R, Debieve PH, Mermod C (1989) Comparaison des régimes alimentaires de la fouine (Martes foina Erxl) et de la martre (Martes martes L) dans une région du Jura suisse. Rev Suisse Zool 96:127–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mergey M, Helder R, Roeder J-J (2011) Effect of forest fragmentation on space-use patterns in the European pine marten (Martes martes. J Mammal 92:328–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Moritz C, Patton JL, Conroy CJ, Parra JL, White GC, Beissinger SR (2008) Impact of a century of climate change on small-mammal communities in Yosemite National Park, USA. Science 322:261–264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Mortelliti A, Boitani L (2008) Interaction of food resources and landscape structure in determining the probability of patch use by carnivores in fragmented landscapes. Landscape Ecol 23:285–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. O’Mahony D, O’Reilly C, Turner P (2012) Pine marten (Martes martes) distribution and abundance in Ireland: a cross-jurisdictional analysis using non-invasive genetic survey techniques. Mamm Biol 77(5):351–357Google Scholar
  51. O’Reilly C, Statham M, Mullins J, Turner PD, O’Mahony D (2008) Efficient species identification of pine marten (Martes martes) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scats using a 5¢ nuclease real-time PCR assay. Conserv Genet doi. doi: 10.1007/s10592-007-9371-6 Google Scholar
  52. Palomares F, Gaona P, Ferreras P, Delibes M (1995) Positive effects on game species of top predators by controlling smaller predator populations: an example with lynx, mongooses, and rabbits. Conserv Biol 9:295–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37:637–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Parmesan C, Yohe G (2003) A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421:37–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Pereboom V, Mergey M, Villerette N, Helder R, Gerard JF, Lodé T (2008) Movement patterns, habitat selection, and corridor use of a typical woodland-dweller species, the European pine marten (Martes martes), in a fragmented landscape. Can J Zool 86:983–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pertoldi C, Muñoz J, Madsen A, et al. (2008) Genetic variability in the mitochondrial DNA of the Danish pine marten (Martes martes. J Zool (London) 275:68–175Google Scholar
  57. Pilot M, Gralak B, Goszczynski J, Posluszny M (2007) A method of genetic identification of pine marten (Martes martes) and stone marten (Martes foina) and its application to faecal samples. J Zool London 271:140–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Posluszny M, Pilot M, Goszczynski J, Gralak B (2007) Diet of sympatric pine marten (Martes martes) and stone marten (Martes foina) identified by genotyping of DNA from faeces. Ann Zool Fenn 44:269–284Google Scholar
  59. Powell RA, Zielinski WJ (1983) Competition and coexistence in mustelid communities. Acta Zool Fenn 174:223–227Google Scholar
  60. Prigioni C, Cantini M, Zilio A (2001) Atlante dei Mammiferi della Lombardia. Regione Lombardia e Università degli Studi di Pavia, Milano, 325 ppGoogle Scholar
  61. Proulx G, Aubry KB, Birks J, Buskirk SW, Fortin C, Frost HC, Krohn WB, Mayo L, Monakhov V, Payer D, Saeki M, Santos-Reis M, Weir R, Zielinski WJ (2004) World distribution and status of the genus Martes in 2000. In: Harrison DJ, Fuller AK, Proulx G (eds) Martens and fishers (Martes) in human-altered environments: an international perspective. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 21–76Google Scholar
  62. Randi E, Lucchini V, Christensen MF (2000) Mitochondrial DNA variability in Italian and east European wolves: detecting the consequences of small population size and hybridization. Conserv Biol 14:464–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Remonti L, Balestrieri A, Ruiz-González A, Gómez-Moliner BJ, Capelli E, Prigioni C (2012) Intraguild dietary overlap and its possible relationship to the coexistence of mesocarnivores in intensive agricultural habitats. Popul Ecol 54:521–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ripple WJ, Estes JA, Beschta RL, Wilmers CC, Ritchie EG, Hebblewhite M, Berger J, Elmhagen B, Letnic M, Nelson MP, Schmitz OJ, Smith DW, Wallach AD, Wirsing AJ (2014) Status and ecological effects of the world’s largest carnivores. Science 343 1241484Google Scholar
  65. Ritchie EG, Johnson CN (2009) Predator interactions, mesopredator release and biodiversity conservation. Ecol Lett 12:982–998CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Rondinini C, Boitani L (2002) Habitat use by beech martens in a fragmented landscape. Ecography 25:257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Royle JA, Nichols JD (2003) Estimating abundance from repeated presence–absence data or point counts. Ecology 84:777–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rozhnov VV, Meschersky IG, Pishchulina SL, Simakin LV (2010) Genetic analysis of sable (Martes zibellina) and pine marten (M. martes) populations in sympatric part of distribution area in the northern Urals. Russ J Genet 46:488–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ruiz-González A, Rubines J, Berdiόn O, Gomez-Moliner BJ (2008) A non-invasive genetic method to identify the sympatric mustelids pine marten (Martes martes) and stone marten (Martes foina): preliminary distribution survey on the northern Iberian peninsula. Eur J Wildl Res 54(2):253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ruiz-González A, Madeira MJ, Randi E, Urra F, Gómez-Moliner BJ (2013a) Non-invasive genetic sampling of sympatric marten species (Martes martes and Martes foina): assessing species and individual identification success rates on faecal DNA genotyping. Eur J Wildl Res 59:371–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ruiz-González A, Madeira MJ, Randi E, Abramov AV, Davoli F, Gomez-Moliner BJ (2013b) Phylogeography of the forest-dwelling European pine marten (Martes martes): new insights into cryptic northern glacial refugia. Biol J Linn Soc 109:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ruiz-González A, Cushman SA, Madeira MJ, Etore R, Gómez-Moliner BJ (2015) Isolation by distance, resistance and/or clusters? Lessons learned from a forest-dwelling carnivore inhabiting a heterogeneous landscape. Mol Ecol 24:5110–5129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Sacchi O, Meriggi A (1995) Habitat requirements of the stone marten (Martes foina) on the Tyrrhenian slopes of the northern Apennines. In: Prigioni C (ed) Proc III Symp on Carnivores. Hystrix 7, pp. 99–104Google Scholar
  74. Šálek M, Červinka J, Padyšáková E, Kreisinger J (2014) Does spatial co-occurrence of carnivores in a central European agricultural landscape follow the null model? Eur J Wildl Res 60:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Santos MJ, Santos-Reis M (2010) Stone marten (Martes foina) habitat in a Mediterranean ecosystem: effects of scale, sex, and interspecific interactions. Eur J Wildl Res 56:275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Santos MJ, Rosalino LM, Matos HM, Santos-Reis M (2016) Riparian ecosystem configuration influences mesocarnivores presence in Mediterranean landscapes. Eur J Wildl Res. doi: 10.1007/s10344-016-0984-2 Google Scholar
  77. Sexton JP, McIntyre PJ, Angert AL, Rice KJ (2009) Evolution and ecology of species range limits. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 40:415–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sheehy E, Lawton C (2014) Population crash in an invasive species following the recovery of a native predator: the case of the American grey squirrel and the European pine marten in Ireland. Biodivers Conserv DOI. doi: 10.1007/s10531-014-0632-7 Google Scholar
  79. Sinclair ARE, Byrom AE (2006) Understanding ecosystem dynamics for conservation of biota. Jl of Anim. Ecol 75:64–79Google Scholar
  80. Sindaco R, Carpegna F (2010) Segnalazioni Faunistiche Piemontesi. III. Dati preliminari sulla distribuzione dei Mustelidi del Piemonte (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae). Rivista piemontese di Storia naturale 31:397–422Google Scholar
  81. St-Pierre C, Ouellet JP, Crệte M (2006) Do competitive intraguild interactions affect space use and habitat use by small carnivores in a forested landscape? Ecography 29:487–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Svenning JC, Normand S, Skov F (2008) Postglacial dispersal limitation of widespread forest plant species in nemoral Europe. Ecography 31:316–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Svenning J-C, Gravel D, Holt RD, Schurr FM, Thuiller W, Münkemüller T, Schiffers KH, Dullinger S, Edwards TC Jr, Hickler T, Higgins SI, Nabel JEMS, Pagel J, Normand S (2014) The influence of interspecific interactions on species range expansion rates. Ecography 37:1198–1209CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Tannerfeldt M, Elmhagen B, Angerbjörn A (2002) Exclusion by interference competition? The relationship between red and arctic foxes. Oecologia 132:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vergara M, Cushman SA, Urra F, Ruiz-González A (2015) Shaken but not stirred: multiscale habitat suitability modeling of sympatric marten species (Martes martes and Martes foina) in the northern Iberian peninsula. Landscape Ecol. doi: 10.1007/s10980-015-0307-0 Google Scholar
  86. Vernesi C, Pecchioli E, Caramelli D, Tiedemann R, Randi E, Bertorelle G (2002) The genetic structure of natural and reintroduced roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations in the alps and Central Italy, with reference to the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Europe. Mol Ecol 11:1285–1297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Virgós E, Garcia FJ (2002) Patch occupancy by stone martens (Martes foina) in fragmented landscapes of Central Spain: the role of fragment size isolation and habitat structure. Acta Oecol 23:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Virgós E, Zalewski A, Rosalino LM, Mergey M (2012) Habitat ecology of genus Martes in Europe: a review of the evidences. In: Aubry KB, Zielinski WJ, Raphael MG, Proulx G, Buskirk SW (eds) Biology and conservation of marten, sables, and fisher: a new synthesis. Cornell University Press, New York, pp. 255–266Google Scholar
  89. Von Holle B, Simberloff D (2005) Ecological resistance to biological invasion overwhelmed by propagule pressure. Ecology 86:3212–3218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wereszczuk A, Zalewski A (2015) Spatial niche segregation of sympatric stone Marten and Pine Marten—avoidance of competition or selection of optimal habitat? PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139852 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Whiteman CW, Matushima ER, Confalonieri UEC, Palha MDC, Silva ASL, Monteiro VC (2007) Human and domestic animal populations as a potential threat to wild carnivore conservation in a fragmented landscape from the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Biol Conserv 138:290–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wisz MS, Pottier J, Kissling WD, Pellissier L, Lenoir J, Damgaard CF, Dormann CF, Forchhammer MC, Grytnes JA, Guisan A, et al. (2013) The role of biotic interactions in shaping distributions and realised assemblages of species: implications for species distribution modelling. Biol Rev 88:15–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Balestrieri
    • 1
  • Aritz Ruiz-González
    • 2
    • 3
  • Enrica Capelli
    • 4
  • Maria Vergara
    • 2
    • 3
  • Claudio Prigioni
    • 4
  • Nicola Saino
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Zoology and Animal Cell BiologyUniversity of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)Vitoria-GasteizSpain
  3. 3.Systematics, Biogeography and Population Dynamics Research Group, Lascaray Research CenterUniversity of the Basque Country,UPV/EHUVitoria-GasteizSpain
  4. 4.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly

Personalised recommendations