Advertisement

Acta Theriologica

, Volume 58, Issue 3, pp 233–244 | Cite as

Population status, habitat associations, and distribution of the steppe polecat Mustela eversmanii in Europe

  • Martin Šálek
  • Nikolai Spassov
  • Miloš Anděra
  • Karin Enzinger
  • Barnabás Ottlecz
  • Zsolt Hegyeli
Review Article

Abstract

The steppe polecat Mustela eversmanii is a medium-sized mustelid species whose European population has significantly declined over the past century. However, due to the lack of systematic surveys, little is known about its status and distribution. In this paper, we review the current distribution, habitat associations, and population trends of steppe polecats in Europe and assess the main factors associated with these trends. Our results reveal ongoing population declines in most of the studied countries, which led to fragmentation and local population extinctions at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The species was assessed as rapidly declining in Austria, Czech Republic, Moldova, Slovakia, and Ukraine; declining in Bulgaria; and stable in Hungary. Due to insufficient data, its status was not evaluated for Romania, Poland, and Serbia. M. eversmanii naturally occurs in steppe habitats, but recently seems to have adopted open agricultural landscapes consisting of a mosaic of grasslands, small fields with hedges, and dry embankments. Its distribution often coincides with populations of ground squirrels and hamsters. However, in intensively used agricultural landscapes, smaller rodents (especially voles) could also be an important dietary component. Intensive agricultural production, habitat loss, the degradation of steppe and grassland habitats, and significant declines in the availability of its main prey are the crucial factors for the species’ current population decline. Further research is urgently needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge of its distribution, population densities, feeding ecology, habitat associations, and population genetics. This would enable first steps towards its effective conservation and management strategies.

Keywords

Steppe polecat Mustela eversmanii Distribution Habitat associations Population status Europe 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful for the information provided by Miklós Heltai (Institute for Wildlife Conservation, Hungary), Dumitru Murariu (“Grigore Antipa” National Museum of Natural History, Bucharest, Romania), Victoria Nistreanu (Institute of Zoology, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Moldova), Duško Ćirović (Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Serbia), Anton Krištín (Institute of Forest Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia), Petr Koubek (Institute of Vertebrate Biology, ASCR, Czech Republic), Wieslaw Bogdanowicz (Museum & Institute of Zoology PAS, Poland), Andrzej Zalewski (Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland), Hermann Ansorge (Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde Görlitz, Germany), Boris Kryštufek (Group for Biodiversity, Slovenia), Jerzy Romanowski (Centre for Ecological Research PAN, Poland), and Vlasta Škorpíková (Regional Council Znojmo, Czech Republic). We would also like to thank Phil Butterill and Marina Kipson for editing the English manuscript and Frank Zachos, Franz Suchentrunk, and Barbara Herzig for their comments on the first draft of the manuscript. This work was supported by the research aim of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (RVO 68081766).

References

  1. Abramsky Z (1981) Habitat relationships and competition in two Mediterranean Apodemus spp. Oikos 36:219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akimov IA (2009) Red data book of Ukraine. Animal world. Globalconsulting, KyivGoogle Scholar
  3. Allendorf FW, Leary RF, Spruell P, Wenburg JK (2001) The problems with hybrids: setting conservation guidelines. Trends Ecol Evol 16:613–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almăşan H (1962) Observaţiuni asupra epocilor de vînătoare. Vînătorul şi pescarul 15(2):35, In RomanianGoogle Scholar
  5. Anděra M, Červený J (2003) The Red List of mammals of the Czech Republic. Příroda, Praha 22:121–129Google Scholar
  6. Anděra M, Červený J (2009) Large mammals in the Czech Republic. Distribution, history and protection. 2. Carnivores (Carnivora). Národní muzeum, Praha, Czech RepublicGoogle Scholar
  7. Araújo MB, New M (2007) Ensemble forecasting of species distributions. Trends Ecol Evol 22:42–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arnold J, Humer A, Heltai M, Murariu D, Spassov N, Hackländer K (2012) Current status and distribution of gulden jackals Canis aureus in Europe. Mammal Rev 42:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baghli A, Walzberg C, Verhagen R (2005) Habitat use by the European polecat Mustela putorius at low density in a fragmented landscape. Wildl Biol 11:331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barbu P (1971) Contributions a la connaissance de la distribution du putois de steppe Mustela (Putorius) eversmanni Lesson, 1827 en Roumanie. Analele Universităţii Bucureşti 20:9–11, In RomanianGoogle Scholar
  11. Barbu P, Barbu I (1968) Dihorul de stepă în pădurea Albele. Vînătorul şi pescarul 20(5):13–14, In RomanianGoogle Scholar
  12. Bashta ATV, Potish L (2007) Mammals of the Transcarpathian region (Ukraine). Lvov, Ukraine [In Ukraine with English summary]Google Scholar
  13. Baumann M, Kuemmerle T, Elbakidze M, Ozdogan M, Radeloff VC, Keuler NS, Prishchepov AV, Kruhlov I, Hostert P (2011) Patterns and drivers of post-socialist farmland abandonment in Western Ukraine. Land Use Policy 28:552–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beneš B (1985) K výskytu tchořů v severomoravském kraji (The occurrence of the polecats in northern Moravia). Vlastivědné listy severomoravského kraje 11 (2):35–36 [In Czech]Google Scholar
  15. Blandford PRS (1987) Biology of the polecat Mustela putorius, a literature review. Mamm Rev 17:155–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Botnariuc N, Tatole V (eds.) (2005) Cartea Roşie a Vertebratelor din România. Muzeul Naţional de Istorie Naturală „Gr. Antipa”, Bucureşti, Romania [In Romanian]Google Scholar
  17. Buchalczyk T, Ruprecht AL (1975) Tchórz stepowy, Mustela eversmanni Lesson, 1827 – nowy ssak w faunie Polski. Prz Zoologiczny 19:84–91, In PolishGoogle Scholar
  18. Burneo S, González-Maya JF, Tirira D (2009) Distribution and habitat modeling for Mustela felipei in Northern Andes. Small Carniv Conserv 41:41–45Google Scholar
  19. Červený J, Kamer J, Kholová H, Koubek P, Martínková N (2003) Encyklopedie myslivosti (Encyclopedia of game management). Ottovo nakladatelství - Cesty, Praha, Czech Republic. [In Czech]Google Scholar
  20. Červinka J, Šálek M, Pavluvčík P, Kreisinger J (2011) The fine-scale utilization of forest edges by mammalian mesopredators related to patch size and conservation issues in Central European farmland. Biodivers Conserv 20:3459–3475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Červinka J, Šálek M, Padyšáková E, Šmilauer P (2013) The effects of local and landscape-scale habitat characteristics and prey availability on corridor use by carnivores: a comparison of two contrasting farmlands. J Nat Conserv. doi: 10.1016/j.jnc.2012.11.004
  22. Ciechanowski M, Bogdanowicz W (eds) (2013) Steppe polecat “mammals” in “Fauna of Poland. Vol. IV—vertebrates”, PolandGoogle Scholar
  23. Čížek O, Zamečník J, Tropek R, Kočárek P, Konvička M (2012) Diversification of mowing regime increases arthropods diversity in species-poor cultural hay meadows. J Insect Conserv 16:215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Corcimari ND (1965) Data on spreading, biology and economical importance of polecats in Moldova. Scinetific notes TSPI 14:54–59Google Scholar
  25. Coroiu I, Vohralík V (2008) Mesocricetus newtoni. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 Mar 2012
  26. Coroiu C, Kryštufek B, Vohralík V, Zagorodnyuk I (2008) Spermophilus citellus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 Mar 2012
  27. Csathó AI, Csathó AJ (2009) Roadkills and the faunal casualties in Battonya (SE Hungary). Csemete Természet- és Környezetvédelmi Egyesület, Battonya – Szeged, Hungary [In Hungarian with English summary]Google Scholar
  28. Davison A, Birks JDS, Griffiths HI, Kitchener AC, Biggins D, Butlin RK (1999) Hybridization and the phylogenetic relationship between polecats and domestic ferrets in Britain. Biol Conserv 87:155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Engler R, Guisan A, Rechsteiner L (2004) An improved approach for predicting the distribution of rare and endangered species from occurrence and pseudo-absence data. J Appl Ecol 41:263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Enzinger K (2011) Steppeniltis (Mustela eversmannii). Grundlagen zu Erfassung und Schutz der stark gefährdeten Art in Niederösterreich. Naturschutzzentrum Salzburg. Wien, Austria. http://noe-naturschutzbund.at/PDF/Steppeniltis_Bericht2011.pdf [In German]
  31. Enzinger K, Walder C, Gross M, Berg H-M, Moser D, Herzig B (2006) Vorkommen und Schutz des Ziesels (Spermophilus citellus) in Niederösterreich. Projektbericht des NATURSCHUTZBUND NÖ gemeinsam mit NÖ Landesjagdverband, gefördert durch der NÖ Landschaftsfonds, Wien, Austria [In German]Google Scholar
  32. Fernandes M, Maran T, Tikhonov A, Conroy J, Cavallini P, Kranz A, Herrero J, Stubbe M, Abramov A., Wozencraft C (2008) Mustela putorius. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 12 Dec 2012
  33. Freeland JR, Kirk H, Petersen S (2011) Molecular ecology, 2nd edn. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  34. Głowaciński Z (2001) Polska Czerwona Księga Zwierząt. Kręgowce, PWRiL, Warszawa, Poland [In Polish]Google Scholar
  35. Gorsuch WA, Larivière S (2005) Vormela peregusna. Mamm Species 779:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gough MC, Rushton SP (2000) The application of GIS-modelling to mustelid landscape ecology. Mamm Rev 30:197–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grilo C, Bissonette JA, Santos-Reis M (2009) Spatial–temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore casualties: consequences for mitigation. Biol Conserv 142:301–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Guérin C, Patou-Mathis M (1996) Les grands mammifères Plio-Pleistocènes D’Europe. Masson. Paris [In French]Google Scholar
  39. Guisan A, Thuiller W (2005) Predicting species distribution: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecol Lett 8(9):993–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hanák P, Mazák V (1965) Předběžná zpráva o výskytu tchoře stepního Putorius eversmanni Lesson v jižních Čechách [Vorbericht über das Vorkommen des Steppeniltisses, Putorius evermanni Lesson, in Südböhmen]. Lynx (Praha), n. s., 5:33–36 [In German]Google Scholar
  41. Hauer S, Ansorge H, Zöphel U (2009) Atlas der Säugetiere Sachsens. – Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden, Germany [In German]Google Scholar
  42. Hegyeli Z (2009) A molnárgörény (Mustela eversmanii) új jelzései Románia pannon régiójából. Migrans 11(2–4):7–10, In HungarianGoogle Scholar
  43. Helldin J-O (2000) Population trends and harvest management of pine marten Martes martes in Scandinavia. Wildl Biol 6:111–120Google Scholar
  44. Heltai M (2002) The status and distribution of mammal predators in Hungary. Dissertation, St. Stephen University, Gödöllő, HungaryGoogle Scholar
  45. Heptner V, Naumov N, Jurgenson P, Sludskiy A, Chirkova A, Bannikov A (1967) The mammals of the Soviet Union, 2, Part 1. Sirenia and Carnivora. Vyshaya shkola Publ. House, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  46. Jirsík J (1952) Tchoř stepní [plavý], Mustela (Putorius) eversmanni Lesson v severozápadních Čechách (Putorius eversmanni Less. in Bohemia). Časopis Národního muzea, oddíl přírodovědný 121:59–63 [In Czech]Google Scholar
  47. Jongman RHG (2002) Homogenisation and fragmentation of the European landscape: ecological consequences and solutions. Landsc Urban Plan 58:211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Koshev Y, Genov P (2008) New record of steppe polecat (Mustela eversmanni Lesson, 1827) in Northwestern Bulgaria. Hist Nat Bulg 19:183–184Google Scholar
  49. Koubek P, Červený J (2001) Rozšíření tchoře stepního v České republice. AOPK (unpublished report) [In Czech]Google Scholar
  50. Kovács A, Demeter I, Fatér I, Bagyura J, Nagy K, Szitta T, Firmányszky G, Horváth M (2008) Current efforts to monitor and conserve the Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca in Hungary. Ambio 37(6):457–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kratochvíl J (1962) Dvě poznámky ke znalostem o tchoři světlém v ČSSR (Zwei Notizen zur Kenntnis des Steppeniltisses in der Tschechoslowakei). Zoologické listy 11(3):213–226, In CzechGoogle Scholar
  52. Kristiansen LV, Sunde P, Nachman G, Madsen AB (2007) Mortality and reproductive patterns of wild European polecats Mustela putorius in Denmark. Acta Theriol 52:871–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kristin A, Hell P, Bucko J (2013) Tchor stepny Mustela eversmanii. In: Kristofik J, Danko S (ed) Cicavce Slovenska: Rozsirenie, bionomia a ochrana. Veda, Vydavatelstvo SAV Bratislava, Slovakia [In Slovak with English summary]Google Scholar
  54. Kryštufek B, Petkovski S (2003) Annotated checklist of the mammals of the Republic of Macedonia. Bonner zoologische Beiträge 51:229–254Google Scholar
  55. Kryštufek B, Vohralík V, Meinig H, Zagorodnyuk I (2008) Cricetus cricetus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 Mar 2012
  56. Kuemmerle T, Müller D, Griffiths P, Rusu M (2009) Land-use change in Southern Romania after the collapse of socialism. Reg Environ Chang 9:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kurtonur C, Kryštufek B, Özkan B (1994) The European polecat (Mustela putorius) in Turkish Thrace. Small Carniv Conserv 11:8–10Google Scholar
  58. Lanszki J, Heltai M (2007) Diet of the European polecat and steppe polecat in Hungary. Mamm Biol 72(1):49–53Google Scholar
  59. Lanszki J, Heltai M, Lehoczky R (2007) Molnárgörény (Steppe polecat). In: Bihari Z, Csorba G, Heltai M (ed) Magyarország emlőseinek atlasza (The atlas of Hungarian mammals), Kossuth Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary, pp 230–231 [In Hungarian]Google Scholar
  60. Lodé T (1994) Environmental factors influencing habitat exploitation by polecat Mustela putorius in western France. J Zool (Lond) 234:75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Matějů J, Nová P, Uhlíková J, Hulová Š, Cepáková E (2008) Distribution of the European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) in the Czech Republic in 2002–2008. Lynx (Praha), n. s.. 39 (2):277–294Google Scholar
  62. Maudet C, Bassano B, Breitenmoser-Würsten C, Gauthier D, Obexer-Ruff G, Michallet J, Taberlet P, Luikart G (2002) Microsatellite DNA and recent statistical methods in wildlife conservation management: applications in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex (ibex)). Mol Ecol 11:421–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mazák V (1965) Beitrag zur Verbreitung des Steppeniltisses Putorius eversmanni Lesson, 1827 in der Tschechoslowakei. Věstník československé společnosti zoologické 29:85–96Google Scholar
  64. Miklós P, Žiak D (2002) Microhabitat selection by three small mammal species in oak-elm forest. Folia Zool 51(4):275–288Google Scholar
  65. Milenković M (1990) A new finding of the steppe polecat, Mustela eversmanii Lesson, 1827 in Yugoslavia. Arhiv bioloških nauka 42:251–257Google Scholar
  66. Mirić Đ (1976) Stepski tvor, Mustela eversmani Lesson, 1827 (Mammalia: Carnivora) u jugoistočnom delu Pannonskog basena. Glasnik Prirodnjačkog muzeja u Beogradu:129–157Google Scholar
  67. Moreira F, Russo D (2007) Modelling the impact of agricultural abandonment and wildfires on vertebrate diversity in Mediterranean Europe. Landsc Ecol 22:1461–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Müller D, Kuemmerle T, Rusu M, Griffith P (2009) Lost in transition: determinants of cropland abandonment in postsocialist Romania. J Land Use Sci 4:109–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Munteanu A, Lozanu M (2004) Lumea Animală a Moldovei. Mamifere (Animal world of Moldova. Mammals). Chisinau Stiinta 4:104–105, In RomanianGoogle Scholar
  70. Murariu D, Munteanu D (2005) Fauna României, Vol. XVI, Fasc. 5 – Carnivora. Editura Academiei Române, Bucureşti, Romania [In Romanian]Google Scholar
  71. Nagy S, Demeter I (2006) Saker Falcon: European Single Species Action Plan. http://www.birdlife.org/eu/pdfs/falche.pdf. Accessed 25 Sept 2012
  72. Neumann F, Gnad C (2011) Jagdstatistik 2010/11, Statistik Austria.http://www.statistik.at/web_de/static/jagdstatistik_20102011_058712.pdfAccessed 20 Mar 2012
  73. Ottlecz B (2010) Egy ismeretlen menyétféle: a molnárgörény. In Heltai M (ed) Emlősragadozók Magyarországon. Mezőgazda Kiadó, Budapest, pp 155–163 [In Hungarian]Google Scholar
  74. Ottlecz B, Spakovszky P, Heltai M (2011) A molnárgörény (Mustela eversmanii) magyarországi előfordulási adatainak összegzése. Állattani Közlemények 96(1–2):11–23 [In Hungarian with English summary]Google Scholar
  75. Panek M, Bresinski W (2002) Red fox Vulpes vulpes density and habitat use in a rural area of western Poland in the end of 1990s, compared with the turn of 1970s. Acta Theriol 47:433–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Preiss E, Martin JL, Debussche M (1997) Rural depopulation and recent landscape changes in a Mediterranean region: consequences to the breeding avifauna. Landsc Ecol 12:51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Randi E (2008) Detecting hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives. Mol Ecol 17:285–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Red Book of the Republic of Moldova. Second edition. 2001. Shtintsa, Kishinev, Moldova (In Moldavian and English)Google Scholar
  79. Romanowski J (2004) Tchórz stepowy (Mustela eversmanni). In: Adamski P Bartel R Bereszyński A, Kepel A, Witkowski Z (ed) Gatunki Zwierząt (z wyjątkiem ptaków). Poradniki ochrony siedlisk i gatunków Natura 2000 - podręcznik metodyczny. Ministerstwo Środowiska, Poland [In Polish]Google Scholar
  80. Rushton SP, Ormerod SJ, Kerby G (2004) New paradigms for modelling species distributions? J Appl Ecol 41:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Šálek M, Kreisinger J, Sedláček F, Albrecht T (2009) Corridor vs hayfield matrix use by mammalian predators in an agricultural landscape. Agr Ecosyst Environ 134:8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Šálek M, Kreisinger J, Sedláček F, Albrecht T (2010) Do foraging opportunities determine preferences of mammalian predators for habitat edges in an agricultural landscape? Landsc Urban Plan 98:86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sato JJ, Hosoda T, Wolsan M, Tsuchiya K, Yamamoto M, Suzuki H (2003) Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among mustelids (Mammalia: Carnivora) based on nucleotide sequences of the nuclear interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein and mitochondrial cytochrome b genes. Zool Sci 20:243–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schreiber A, Wirth R, Riffel M, Van Rompaey H (1989) Weasels, civets, mongooses, and their relatives. An Action Plan for the Conservation of Mustelids and Viverrids. IUCN/SCC Viverrid and Mustelid Specialist Group, IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  85. Shekarova ON, Neronov VV, Savinetskaya LE (2008) Speckled Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus suslicus): current distribution, population dynamics and conservation. Lynx 39:317–322Google Scholar
  86. Sirami C, Brotons L, Burfield I, Fonerflick J, Martin J-L (2008) Is land abandonment having impact on biodiversity? A meta-analytical approach to bird distribution changes in the north-western Mediterranean. Biol Conserv 141:450–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Spassov N (1982) Evolution and distribution of the steppe polecat and the Western polecat - Priroda Sofia 6:32–39 [In Bulgarian]Google Scholar
  88. Spassov N (2007) Order Carnivora In: Miteva S, Mihova B, Georgiev K, Petrov B, Vandino D (ed) The mammals, important for conservation in Bulgaria. Dutch Mammal Society VZZ, Arnhem, Netherlands, pp 217–290 [In Bulgarian]Google Scholar
  89. Spassov N, Spiridonov G (1985) The Pine Marten, Martes martes L.1758; the Steppe Polecat, Mustela eversmanni Lesson, 1827; the Marbled Polecat, Vormela peregusna Guldenstaedt, 1770; the Otter, Lutra lutra L.,1758. In: Botev B, Pestev T. (ed) Red Data Book of Bulgaria. Vol.2, Animals, Publ. House of the Bulgarian Acad. of Sci., 1985 [In Bulgarian]Google Scholar
  90. Spassov N, Spiridonov G (2011) Steppe polecat, Mustela eversmanni Lesson, 1827. In: Red Data Book of the Republic of Bulgaria. Digital edition, Vol. 2. Animals. Joint Edition of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences & Ministry of Environment and Water. SofiaGoogle Scholar
  91. Spassov N, Georgiev K, Ivanova N, Ivanov V (2002) Study of the status of marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna peregusna Guld.) in Western and North-Eastern Bulgaria with data on the status of its potential main prey species and competitors. Hist Nat Bulg 14:123–140Google Scholar
  92. Spitzenberger F (2001) Mustela eversmannii – Steppeniltis in: Die Säugetierfauna Österreichs. Grüne Reihe des Bundesministeriums für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft. Band 13. Graz 2001. austria medien service GmbH Verlag [In German]Google Scholar
  93. Spitzenberger F (2005) Rote Liste der Säugetiere Österreichs (Mammalia) In: Zulka P, Wallner R: Rote Listen gefährdeter Tiere Österreichs. Wien. Köln. Weimar 2005. Böhlau Verlag [In German]Google Scholar
  94. Suárez-Seoane S, Osborne PE, Baudry J (2002) Responses of birds of different biogeographic origins and habitat requirements to agricultural land abandonment in northern Spain. Biol Conserv 105:333–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sundseth K (2009) Natura 2000 in the steppic region. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, Belgium. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/info/pubs/docs/biogeos/Steppic.pdf
  96. Svobodová J, Kreisinger J, Šálek M, Koubová M, Albrecht T (2011) Testing mechanistic explanations for mammalian predator responses to habitat edges. Eur J Wildl Res 57(3):467–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Széky P (1974) Adatok a magyarországi mezei görény (Putorius eversmanni hungarica Éhik) biológiájához. Gödöllői Agrártudományi Egyetem Közleményei, Gödöllő, pp 45–61 [In Hungarian]Google Scholar
  98. Thomas CD, Cameron A, Green RE, Bakkenes M, Beaumont LJ, Collingham YC et al (2004) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427:145–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tikhonov A, Cavallini P, Maran T, Krantz A, Stubbe M, Kryštufek B, Abramov A, Wozencraft C (2008) Mustela eversmanii. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 Sep 2012
  100. Todd IA, Tew TE, Macdonald DW (2000) Arable habitat use by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). 1. Effect of macrohabitat. J Zool 250:299–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tye H (1991) The lowland grasslands of Central and Eastern Europe. IUCN, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  102. Vallecillo S, Brotons L, Herrando S (2008) Assessing the response of open habitat bird species to landscape changes in Mediterranean mosaics. Biodivers Conserv 17:103–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vallo P, Martínková N, Koubek P (2007) Genetic variability in Moravian polecats: a pilot study using mitochondrial DNA sequences. In: Hájková P, Růžičková O (eds) Proceedings of the 25th Mustelid Colloquium, 4–7 October 2007. Czech Republic, TřeboňGoogle Scholar
  104. Veen P, Molnar Z (2001) Grassland ecosystem in central and eastern Europe. In: EU enlargement. University of Gottingen, pp 24–39Google Scholar
  105. Volokh A (2004) Current state of the steppe polecat (Mustela eversmanni Lesson, 1827) in Ukraine. Naukoviy Visnik Ujgorodskogo Univeritetu, Ser. Biology 15:105–109 [In Ukraine with English summary]Google Scholar
  106. Weinhold U (2008) Draft European Action Plan for the conservation of the Common hamster (Cricetus cricetus, L. 1758). Strasbourg: Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats. Standing Committee. 28th meeting, Strasbourg, FranceGoogle Scholar
  107. Wolsan M (1993) Mustela eversmanii Lesson, 1827 – Steppeniltis. In: Stubbe M, Krapp F (eds) Handbuch der Säugetiere Europeas. Band 5/II, Carnivora (Fissipedia), Wiesbaden: Aula Verlag, Austria, pp 770–816 [In German]Google Scholar
  108. Wolsan M (1999) Mustela eversmanii LESSON, 1872. In: Mitchell-Jones AJ, Amori G, Bogdanovicz W, Kryštufek B, Reijnders PJH, Spitzenberger F, Stubbe M, Thissen JBM, VohralíkV, Zima J (1999) The Atlas of European mammals. London: T. & A. D. Poyser LtdGoogle Scholar
  109. Zagorodnyuk I, Glowacinski Z, Gondek A (2008) Spermophilus suslicus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 Mar 2012
  110. Žiak D, Urban P (2001) Red (ecosozological) List of mammals (Mammalia) of Slovakia. In: Baláž D, Marhold K, Urban P (ed) Red List of plants and animals of Slovakia, Ochrana Prírody 20 (Suppl.):154–156 [In Slovak with an English summary]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Białowieża, Poland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Šálek
    • 1
  • Nikolai Spassov
    • 2
  • Miloš Anděra
    • 3
  • Karin Enzinger
    • 4
  • Barnabás Ottlecz
    • 5
  • Zsolt Hegyeli
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute of Vertebrate BiologyAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.National Museum of Natural HistoryBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria
  3. 3.National MuseumPraha 1Czech Republic
  4. 4.Austrian League of Nature ConservationViennaAustria
  5. 5.Institute of Wildlife Management and Vertebrate ZoologyUniversity of West HungarySopron Ady E. U. 5Hungary
  6. 6.“Milvus Group” Bird and Nature Protection AssociationTîrgu-MureşRomania

Personalised recommendations