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Biomarker Mapping on Skin Tape Strips Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging

  • Guillaume HochartEmail author
  • David Bonnel
  • Jonathan Stauber
  • Georgios N. Stamatas
Research Article

Abstract

Keratinocyte organization and biochemistry are important in forming the skin’s protective barrier. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect skin barrier function at the cellular and molecular levels. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric imaging, a technique which combines both molecular aspects and histological details, has proven to be a valuable method in various disciplines including pharmacology, dermatology and cosmetology. It typically requires ex vivo samples, prepared following frozen tissue sectioning. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of performing MALDI analysis on tape strips collected non-invasively on skin. The aim is to obtain molecular imaging of corneocytes on tapes towards novel biological insights. Tapes were collected from two skin sites (volar forearm and cheek) of human volunteers. Ten molecules relating to skin barrier function were detected with a single mode of acquisition at high spatial resolution with a 7 T MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) instrument. The method sensitivity was adequate to create molecular maps which could be overlaid on transmission microscopy images of the same area of the tape. Analysis of the molecular distributions from tapes at the two skin sites was consistent with the known skin properties of the two sites, confirming the validity of the observations. Hierarchical clustering analysis was used to differentiate corneocyte populations based on their molecular profiles. Furthermore, morphological analysis provided a new way of considering statistical populations of corneocytes on the same tape, rather than measuring a single averaged value, providing additional useful information relating to their structure-function relationship.

Keywords

Molecular mapping Corneocytes MALDI-FTICR mass spectrometry imaging Skin barrier 

Abbreviation

AA

Aminoacridine

ACN

Acetonitrile

CHCA

α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid

DAN

Diaminonaphtalene

DESI

Desorption electrospray ionization

DHB

Dihydroxybenzoic acid

FTICR

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

HD

High definition

ITO

Indium-tin-oxide

LC-MS/MS

Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry tandem

MALDI

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization

MS

Mass spectrometry

MSI

Mass spectrometry Imaging

NMF

Natural moisturization factor

PCA

Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid

RMS

Root mean square

ROI

Region of interest

TFA

Trifluoroacetic acid

TOF-SIMS

Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

UCA

Urocanic acid

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Gaël Picard de Müller and Fabien Pamelard for their contribution to the morphologic and statistical approaches.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

GNS is employee of Johnson & Johnson Santé Beauté France, a manufacturer of skin care products. GH, DB, and JS are employees of ImaBiotech, SAS a provider of analytical services including MALDI-MSI. The authors of the manuscript declare no competing commercial/financial interests.

Supplementary material

13361_2019_2277_MOESM1_ESM.tif (8.4 mb)
ESM 1 Skin tape strip analysis workflow. a) Collection of the skin tape strips; b) Mounting of the tapes for digital HD scan; c) Mounting for MSI and matrix deposit; d) MALDI-imaging. (PNG 1273 kb) (JPG 337 kb)

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Copyright information

© American Society for Mass Spectrometry 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guillaume Hochart
    • 1
    Email author
  • David Bonnel
    • 1
  • Jonathan Stauber
    • 2
  • Georgios N. Stamatas
    • 3
  1. 1.ImaBiotech SASLoosFrance
  2. 2.ImaBiotech CorpBillericaUSA
  3. 3.Johnson & Johnson Santé Beauté FranceIssy-les-MoulineauxFrance

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