A new species of woodpecker (Aves; Picidae) from the early Miocene of Saulcet (Allier, France)

  • Vanesa L. De Pietri
  • Albrecht Manegold
  • Loïc Costeur
  • Gerald Mayr
Article

Abstract

We describe a new genus and species of woodpecker (Piciformes: Picidae), Piculoides saulcetensis, from the early Miocene (MN1–MN2) of Saulcet, in the “Saint-Gérand-le-Puy” area, central France, which is the earliest definite record of the family. The new species is represented solely by the distal end of a tarsometatarsus, which bears nonetheless diagnostic features that allowed us to place Piculoides saulcetensis in a phylogenetic context. Our results show that the fossil from Saulcet is either a stem-group representative of piculets (Picumninae) and true woodpeckers (Picinae) or of true woodpeckers only. Piculoides saulcetensis is similar to a fragmentary tarsometatarsus of a picid from the late Oligocene of southern Germany, and we thus hypothesize a close relationship between the two.

Keywords

Piciformes Saulcet Saint-Gérand-le-Puy Piculoides Fossil birds Early Miocene 

References

  1. Ballmann, P. (1969). Die Vögel aus der altburdigalen Spaltenfüllung von Wintershof (West) bei Eichstätt in Bayern. Zitteliana, 1, 5–60.Google Scholar
  2. Ballmann, P. (1976). Fossile Vögel aus dem Neogen der Halbinsel Gargano (Italien), zweiter Teil. Scripta Geologica, 38, 1–59.Google Scholar
  3. Ballmann, P. (1983). A new species of fossil barbet (Aves: Piciformes) from the Middle Miocene of the Nördlinger Ries (Southern Germany). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 3(1), 43–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Becker, J. J. (1986). Fossil birds of the Oreana local fauna (Blancan), Owyhee County, Idaho. Great Basin Naturalist, 46(4), 673–678.Google Scholar
  5. Benz, W. B., Robbins, M. B., & Peterson, A. T. (2006). Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40, 389–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berthet, D. (2003). Le genre Cainotherium (Mammalia, Artiodactyla). Etude morphométrique, révision systématique, implications évolutives et paléogéographiques, extinction. Documents des laboratoires de Géologie de Lyon, 159, 205.Google Scholar
  7. Cracraft, J., & Morony, J. J., Jr. (1969). A new Pliocene woodpecker, with comments on the fossil Picidae. American Museum Novitates, 2400, 1–8.Google Scholar
  8. Donsimoni, M. (1975). Etude des calcaires concrétionnés lacustres de l’Oligocène supérieur et de l’Aquitanien du bassin de Limagne (Massif Central, France). Unpublished thesis, University Paris VI, 201 p.Google Scholar
  9. Feduccia, J. A., & Wilson, R. L. (1967). Avian fossils from the lower Pliocene of Kansas. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 655, 1–6.Google Scholar
  10. Goodge, W. R. (1972). Anatomical evidence for phylogenetic relationships among woodpeckers. Auk, 89, 65–85.Google Scholar
  11. Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G., Smith, A. G., Bleeker, W., & Lourens, L. J. (2004). A new geologic time scale, with special reference to Precambrian and Neogene. Episodes, 27, 83–100.Google Scholar
  12. Hugueney, M. (1974). Gisements de petits mammifères dans la région de Saint-Gérand-le-Puy (stratigraphie relative). Revue scientifique du Bourbonnais, 52–68.Google Scholar
  13. Hugueney, M. (1984). Evolution du Paléoenvironnement dans le tertiaire de Limagne (Massif Central, France) à partir des faunes de mammifères. Geobios, mémoire spécial no. 8, 385–391.Google Scholar
  14. Hugueney, M. (1997). Biochronologie mammalienne dans le Paléogène et le Miocène inférieur du centre de la France : synthèse réactualisée. In J.-P. Aguilar, S. Legendre and J. Michaux (Eds), Actes du Congrès BiochroM’97 (pp. 417–430). Mémoires et Travaux de l’institut de Montpellier, 21: E.P.H.E.Google Scholar
  15. Hürzeler, J. (1936). Osteologie und Odontologie der Caenotheriden. Schweizerische Paläontologische Abhandlungen, 58.Google Scholar
  16. Hürzeler, J. (1944). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Dimylidae. Schweizerische Paläontologische Abhandlungen, 65.Google Scholar
  17. Johansson, U. S., & Ericson, P. G. P. (2003). Molecular support for a sister group relationship between Pici and Galbulae (Piciformes sensu Wetmore 1960). Journal of Avian Biology, 34, 185–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Korth, W. W. (2008). Cranial morphology, systematics and succession of beavers from the middle miocene valentine formation of nebraska, USA. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 53(2), 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Laybourne, R. C., Deedrick, D. W., & Hueber, F. M. (1994). Feather in amber is earliest new world fossil of Picidae. Wilson Bulletin, 106(1), 18–25.Google Scholar
  20. Mayr, G. (1998). “Coraciiforme” und “piciforme” Kleinvögel aus dem Mittel-Eozän der Grube Messel (Hessen, Deutschland). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 205, 1–101.Google Scholar
  21. Mayr, G. (2001). The earliest fossil record of a modern-type piciform bird from the late Oligocene of Germany. Journal für Ornithologie, 142, 2–6.Google Scholar
  22. Mayr, G. (2005). A tiny barbet-like bird from the Lower Oligocene of Germany: the smallest species and earliest substantial fossil record of the Pici (woodpeckers and allies). Auk, 122(4), 1055–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mayr, G. (2006). First fossil skull of a Paleogene representative of the Pici (woodpeckers and allies) and its evolutionary implications. Ibis, 148, 824–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mayr, G. (2010). Mousebirds (Coliiformes), parrots (Psittaciformes), and other small birds from the late Oligocene/early Miocene of the Mainz Basin, Germany. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie–Abhandlungen, 258(2), 129–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mayr, G., Manegold, A., & Johansson, U. S. (2003). Monophyletic groups within ‘higher land birds’––comparison of morphological and molecular data. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 41, 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mayr, G., & Smith, R. (2001). Ducks, rails, and limicoline waders (Aves: Anseriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes) from the lowermost Oligocene of Belgium. Geobios, 34(5), 547–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mein, P. (1975). Proposition de biozonation du Néogène méditterranéen à partir des Mammifères. Actas i coloquio internacional sobre biostratigrafia continental del Neogeno superior y cuaternario inferior, 4, 112–113.Google Scholar
  28. Meulenkamp, J. E., & Sissingh, W. (2003). Tertiary palaeogeography and tectonostratigraphic evolution of the northern and southern Peri-Tethys platforms and the intermediate domains of the African-Eurasian convergent plate boundary zone. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 196, 209–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Milne-Edwards, A. (1867–1868). Recherches anatomiques et paléontologiques pour servir à l’histoire des oiseaux fossiles de la France, vol II., Paris: Victor Masson et fils.Google Scholar
  30. Short, L. L. (1965). Variation in West Indian flickers (Aves, Colaptes). Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, 10, 1–42.Google Scholar
  31. Short, L. L. (1982). Woodpeckers of the world. Greenville, Delaware: Delaware Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  32. Simpson, S. F., & Cracraft, J. (1981). The phylogenetic relationships of the Piciformes (class Aves). Auk, 98, 481–494.Google Scholar
  33. Steininger, F. (1999). The Continental European Miocene. Chronostratigraphy, geochronology and biochronology of the “miocene european land mammal mega-zones” (ELMMZ) and the miocene “mammal-zones” (MN-Zones). In G. E. Rössner & K. Heissig (Eds.), The miocene land mammals of Europe (pp. 9–24). München: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil.Google Scholar
  34. Swierczewski, E. V., & Raikow, R. J. (1981). Hind limb morphology, phylogeny, and classification of the Piciformes. Auk, 98(3), 466–480.Google Scholar
  35. Umanskaja, A. S. (1981). Miocenovye pticy Zapadnogo Pričernomor’ja USSR. Soobščenie II. [Miocene birds of western Pričernomor’e. Communication II.] Vestnik Zoologii, 17, 17–21. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  36. Webb, D. M., & Moore, W. S. (2005). A phylogenetic analysis of woodpeckers and their allies using 12S, Cyt b, and COI nucleotide sequences (class Aves; order Piciformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 36, 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wetmore, A. (1931). Record of an unknown woodpecker from the lower Pliocene. The Condor, 33(6), 255–256.Google Scholar
  38. Winkler, H., & Christie, D. A. (2002). Family Picidae (Woodpeckers). In J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, & J. Sargatal (Eds.), Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol 7. Jacamars to Woodpeckers. (pp. 296–555). Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.Google Scholar
  39. Ziegler, R. (1999). Order Insectivora. In G. E. Rössner & K. Heissig (Eds.), The Miocene land mammals of Europe (pp. 53–74). München: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akademie der Naturwissenschaften Schweiz (SCNAT) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanesa L. De Pietri
    • 1
  • Albrecht Manegold
    • 2
  • Loïc Costeur
    • 3
  • Gerald Mayr
    • 2
  1. 1.Naturhistorisches Museum der Burgergemeinde BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut, Sektion für OrnithologieFrankfurt am MainGermany
  3. 3.Naturhistorisches Museum BaselBaselSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations