The Neogene tropical America fish assemblage and the paleobiogeography of the Caribbean region

  • Orangel Antonio Aguilera Socorro
  • Maria Inês Feijó Ramos
  • Eduardo Tavares Paes
  • Sue Anne Regina Ferreira Costa
  • Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra


This first analysis of the marine fish fossil record in the Caribbean region during the Neogene is based on comprehensive new faunal compilation lists at the generic level from basins of nine Central and South American countries during Miocene and Pliocene times. Joint ordination and classification techniques were used to analyze data comprising 236 genera and 346 species. Principal Component Analyses were used to calculate covariance and variance between localities. We identified four subprovinces, representing four different patterns. The subprovince of Venezuela shows distinct and unique features since the Neogene in the diversity of ecosystems represented. The Antillean subprovince has a western orientation and is composed of Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and the Trinidad islands. The third subprovince combines Panama and Ecuador. It reflects the Pacific faunal influence into the proto-Caribbean and a characteristic benthopelagic fauna. The fourth subprovince is Costarican. Its nektonic fish fauna reflects the overprinting impact over the proto-Caribbean fish fauna mostly due to local paleoenvironmental changes (neritic, estuarine and deep water assemblages), whereby the overall composition of genera is largely not affected (except few lamnids, such as the giant-toothed white sharks and the wide-toothed mako shark). The results of the analyses are concordant with previous ones based on invertebrates and identified regions in need of study (e.g., Colombia, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Brazil).


Neogene Caribbean Gatunian Province Teleostean Elasmobranch 



Specimens in the Museum of Natural History of Belgian, Museum of Natural History of Basel, Smithsonian Natural History Museum, Museum Emilio Goeldi and Francisco de Miranda University collections were kindly made available for study by Dirk Nolf, Walter Etter, Robert Purdy, Heloísa Moraes dos Santos and Julio Reyes, respectively. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panamá, the Palaeontological Institute and the Museum of the University of Zurich, Switzerland, the Museum Emilio Goeldi, Brazil, the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) from Brazil provided funding for fieldtrips, study and museum visits. We wish to acknowledge Anthony Coates and Jeremy Jackson for the invitation to work under the scope of the Panama Paleontology Project, and to Carlos Jaramillo for support with stratigraphical research in Venezuela. Werner Schwarzhans helped us with the fossil fish review from Ecuador and Venezuela and reviewed an earlier version of the manuscript. We thank Aaron O’Dea, Jorge Carillo and Félix Rodriguez for discussion of ideas, and Loïc Costeur, Torsten Scheyer, Bernie Landau and Lionel Cavin for useful suggestions.


  1. Abdi, H., Dunlop, J. P., & Willians, L. J. (2009). How to compute reliability estimates and display confidence and tolerance intervals for pattern classifiers using the Bootstrap and 3-way multidimensional scaling (DISTATIS). Neuroimage, 45(1), 89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera, O. (2004). Tesoros paleontológicos de Venezuela: Urumaco patrimonio natural de la humanidad. Caracas: Editorial Arte.Google Scholar
  3. Aguilera, O. (2010). Venezuelan fossil fishes from the Caribbean. Washington, DC: Gorham Printing.Google Scholar
  4. Aguilera, O., Garcia, L., & Cozzuol, M. (2008). Giant-toothed white sharks and cetacean trophic interaction from the Pliocene Caribbean Paraguaná Formation. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 82, 204–208.Google Scholar
  5. Aguilera, O., & Lunddberg, J. (2010). Venezuelan Caribbean and Orinocoan Neogene fish. In M. Sánchez-Villagra, O. Aguilera, & F. Carlini (Eds.), Urumaco and Venezuelan Paleontology (pp. 129–152). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Aguilera, O., & Rodrigues de Aguilera, D. (1999). Bathymetric distribution of Miocene to Pleistocene Caribbean teleostean fishes from the coast of Panama and Costa Rica. Bull Am Paleontol, 357, 251–269.Google Scholar
  7. Aguilera, O., & Rodrigues de Aguilera, D. (2001). An exceptional upwelling of fish assemblages in the Caribbean Neogene. Journal of Paleontology, 75, 732–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aguilera, O., & Rodrigues de Aguilera, D. (2004a). Amphi-American Neogene sea catfishes (Siluriformes, Ariidae) from northern South America. Special Papers Palaeontol, 71, 29–48.Google Scholar
  9. Aguilera, O., & Rodrigues de Aguilera, D. (2004b). New Miocene otolith-based sciaenid species (Pisces, Perciformes) from Venezuela. Special Papers Palaeontol, 71, 49–59.Google Scholar
  10. Aguilera, O., & Rodrigues de Aguilera, D. (2004c). Goliath grouper (Pisces, Serranidae) from the Upper Mioceno Urumaco formation, Venezuela. Journal of Paleontology, 78, 1202–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aguilera, O., Rodrigues de Aguilera, D., Vega, F. J., & Sánchez-Villagra, M. (2010). Mesozoic and Cenozoic decapod crustaceans from Venezuela and related trace-fossil assemblages. In M. Sánchez-Villagra, O. Aguilera, & F. Carlini (Eds.), Urumaco and Venezuelan Paleontology (pp. 103–128). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bachmann, R. (2001). The Caribbean plate and the question of its formation. Institute of Geology, University of Mining and Technology Freiberg Department of Tectonophysics http://www.fiu/orgs/caribgeol.
  13. Bianucci, G., Cantalamessa, G., Landini, W., Ragaini, L., & Valleri, G. (1993). Fossil assemblages from the Pliocene of Onzole formation (Esmeraldas, NW Ecuador) and their implications in the Panamic bioprovince evolution. Documents du Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, 123, 43–58.Google Scholar
  14. Bianucci, G., Cantalamessa, G., Landini, W., Ragaini, L., & Valleri, G. (1997). Paleontological and sedimentological observations on the Canoa formation. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 36, 85–96.Google Scholar
  15. Blake, S. F. (1862). Fossil shark teeth at Panama. Geologist, 5, 316.Google Scholar
  16. Budd, A. F., Johnson, K. G., & Stemann, T. A. (1996). Plio-Pleistocene turnover and extinctions in the Caribbean reef coral fauna. In J. B. C. Jackson, A. F. Budd, & A. G. Coates (Eds.), Evolution and environment in tropical America (pp. 168–204). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  17. Budd, A. F., Stemann, T. A., & Johnson, K. G. (1994). Stratigraphic distributions of genera and species of Neogene to recent Caribbean reef corals. Journal of Paleontology, 68, 951–977.Google Scholar
  18. Calinski, T., & Harabasz, J. (1974). A dendrite method for cluster analysis. Communications in Statistics, 3, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Casier, E. (1958). Contribution à l’étude des poissons fossiles des Antilles. Mémoire Suisse de Paléontologie, 74, 1–95.Google Scholar
  20. Ch Underwood, J., & Mitchell, S. F. (2004). Sharks, bony fishes and endodental borings from the Miocene Montpelier formation (White Limestone) of Jamaica. Cainozoic Research, 3, 157–165.Google Scholar
  21. Cheetham, A. H., & Jackson, J. B. C. (1996). Speciation, extinction, and decline of arborescent grown in Neogene and Quaternary cheilostome Bryozoa of tropical America. In J. B. C. Jackson, A. F. Budd, & A. G. Coates (Eds.), Evolution and environment in tropical America (pp. 205–233). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  22. Cheetham, A. H., Jackson, J. B. C., & Sanner, J. (2001). Evolutionary significance of sexual and asexual modes of propagation in Neogene species of the bryozoan Metrarabdotos in tropical America. Journal of Paleontology, 75, 564–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coates, A. G., Collins, L. S., Aubry, M.-P., & Berggren, W. A. (2004). The geology of the Darien, Panama, and the late Miocene–Pliocene collision of the Panama arc with northwestern South America. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 116(11–12), 1327–1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coates, A. G., McNeill, D. F., Aubry, M.-P., Berggren, W. A., & Collins, L. S. (2005). An introduction to the geology of the Bocas del Toro Archipelago, Panama. Caribbean J Sci, 41(3), 374–391.Google Scholar
  25. Coates, A. G., & Obando, J. A. (1996). The geologic evolution of the Central American Isthmus. In J. B. C. Jackson, A. F. Budd, & A. G. Coates (Eds.), Evolution and environment in tropical America (pp. 21–56). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  26. Collins, L. S., Aguilera, O., Borne, P. F., & Cairns, S. D. (1999). A Paleoenvironmental analysis of the Neogene of Caribbean Panama and Costa Rica using several phyla. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 357, 81–87.Google Scholar
  27. Collins, J. S. H., Portell, R. W., & Donovan, S. K. (2009). Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus. Scripta Geológica, 138, 55–111.Google Scholar
  28. Costa S (2011) Ictiólitos da Formação Pirabas, Mioceno do Pará, Brasil, e suas implicações Paleoecologicas. Tese Doutorado em Ciências. Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto de Geociências, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  29. Costa, S., Ritcher, M., Toledo, M., & Moraes-Santos, H. (2009). Shark teeth from Pirabas formation (Lower Miocene), northeastern Amazonia, Brasil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Serie Geociências, 4, 221–230.Google Scholar
  30. Costa, S., Toledo, M., & Moraes-Santos, H. (2004). Paleovertebrados. In D. E. Rossetti & A. Goes (Eds.), O Neogeno da Amazônia Oriental (pp. 135–166). Belém: Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi.Google Scholar
  31. de Porta, J. (2003). La formación del istmo de Panamá. Su incidencia en Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias, 27(103), 191–216.Google Scholar
  32. Días-Franco, S., & Rojas-Consuegra, R. (2009). Dientes fósiles de Sphyraena (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) en el Terciario de Cuba occidental. Solenodon, 8, 124–129.Google Scholar
  33. Donovan, S. K., & Gunter, G. C. (2001). Fossil sharks from Jamaica. Bull Mizunami Fossil Mus, 28, 211–215.Google Scholar
  34. Donovan, S. K., Nagassar, V., & Sankar, K. (2001). A fossil shark from the Plio-Pleistocene of Tobago. Caribbean Journal of Science, 37(1–2), 119–122.Google Scholar
  35. Fasham, M. J. R. (1977). A comparison of nonmetric multidimensional scaling, principal components and reciprocal averaging for the ordination of simulated coenoclines and coenoplanes. Ecology, 58, 551–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Foote, M., & Miller, A. I. (2007). Principles of paleontology (3rd ed.). New York: Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  37. Gillette, D. D. (1984). A marine ichthyofauna from the Miocene of Panamá, and the Tertiary Caribbean faunal province. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 4, 172–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hammer, O., Harper D. A. T., Ryan, P. D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1):9.
  39. Harnik, P. G., Jablonski, D., Krug, A. Z., & Valentine, J. W. (2010). Genus age, provincial area and the taxonomic structure of marine faunas. Proceeding of the Royal Society, 277, 3427–3435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoernle, K., van den Bogaard, P., Werner, R., Lissinna, B., Hauff, F., Alvarado, G., et al. (2002). Missing history (16–71 Ma) of the Galápagos hotspot: implications for the tectonic and biological evolution of the Americas. Geology, 30, 795–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Iturralde-Vinent, M. (2004–2005). La paleogeografía del Caribe y sus implicaciones para la biogeografía histórica. Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 25–26, 48–78.Google Scholar
  42. Iturralde-Vinent, M., & Case, G. R. (1998). First report of the fossil fish, Diodon (family Diodontidae) from the Miocene of Cuba. Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Paleontología, 8, 123–126.Google Scholar
  43. Iturralde-Vinent, M., Hubbell, G., & Rojas, R. (1996). Catalogue of Cuban fossil Elasmobranchii (Paleocene to Pliocene) and paleogeographic implications of their lower to middle Miocene occurrence. Boletín de la Sociedad Jamaicana de Geología, 31, 7–21.Google Scholar
  44. Iturralde-Vinent, M., Laurito, C., Rojas, R., & Gutierrez, M. R. (1998). Myliobatidae (Elasmobranchii: Batomorphii) del Terciario de Cuba. Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Paleontología, 8, 135–145.Google Scholar
  45. Iturralde-Vinent, M. A., & MacPhee, R. D. E. (1999). Paleogeography of the Caribbean region: Implications for Cenozoic biogeography. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 238, 1–95.Google Scholar
  46. Jackson, J. B. C., Jung, P., Coates, A., & Collins, S. (1993). Diversity and extinction of tropical American mollusks and emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. Science, 260, 1624–1626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jackson, D. A., Somers, K. M., & Harvey, H. H. (1989). Similarity coefficients: measures of co-occurrence and association or simply measures of occurrence. Am Nat, 133(3), 436–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson, K. G., Sánchez-Villagra, M., & Aguilera, O. (2009). The Oligocene–Miocene transition on coral reefs in the Falcón Basin (NW Venezuela). Palaios, 24, 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Landau, B., Marques da Silva, C., & Vermeij, G. (2009). Pacific elements in the Caribbean Neogene gastropod fauna: the source-sink model, larval development, disappearance, and faunal units. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 180, 249–258.Google Scholar
  50. Landau, B., Vermeij, G., & Marques da Silva, C. (2008). Southern Caribbean Neogene palaeobiogeography revisited. New data from the Pliocene of Cubagua, Venezuela. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 257, 445–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Landini, W., Bianucci, G., Carnevale, G., Ragaini, L., Sorbini, C., Valleri, G., et al. (2002a). Late Pliocene fossils of Ecuador and their role in the development of the Panamic bioprovince after the rising of Central American Isthmus. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 39, 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Landini, W., Carnevale, G., & Sorbini, Ch. (2002b). Biogeographical significance of northern extraprovincial fishes in the Pliocene of Ecuador. Geobios, 24, 120–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Landini, W., Ragaini, L., Sorbini, L., Valleri, G., Varola, A., & Vera, R. (1991). Paleontologic and biostratigraphic observations on the Pliocene of Camarones (Esmeraldas, Ecuador). Atti della Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rendiconti, Scienze Fisiche e Naturali, 9(2), 353–359.Google Scholar
  54. Laurito, C. (1996). Análisis preliminar de la ictiofauna de Alto Guayacán (Costa Rica) con base en los otolitos, Formación Uscari (Mioceno superior-Plioceno inferior). Revista Geológica de América Central, 19(29), 93–109.Google Scholar
  55. Laurito, C. (1999). Los seláceos fósiles de la localidad de Alto Guayacán (y otros ictiolitos asociados), Mioceno superior-Plioceno inferior de la Formación Uscari, provincia de Limón, Costa Rica. Costa Rica: San José.Google Scholar
  56. Laurito, C. (2004). Ictiofauna de la Formación Punta Judas, Mioceno tardío, provincia de Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Brenesia, 62, 57–74.Google Scholar
  57. Laurito, C., & Valerio, A. (2008). Ictiofauna de la localidad de San Gerardo de Limoncito, Formación Curré, Mioceno superior, cantón de Coto Brus, provincia de Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Revista Geológica de América Central, 39, 65–85.Google Scholar
  58. Laurito, C., Valerio, A., Ovares, E., Hernández, A., & Pizarro, D. (2008). Peces fósiles de la localidad Lomas de Siquirres, cauce del río Reventazón, Formación Río Banano, Mioceno superior, provincia de Limón, Costa Rica. Revista Geológica de América Central, 38, 11–25.Google Scholar
  59. Legendre, P., Ellingsen, K. E., Bjornbom, E., & Casgrain, P. (2002). Acoustic seabed classification: improved statistical method. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 59(7), 1085–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Legendre, P., & Legendre, L. (1998). Numerical ecology (2nd English edn). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV.Google Scholar
  61. Leriche, M. (1938). Contribution à L’étude des poisson fossiles des pays riverains de la Méditerranée Americaine (Venezuela, Trinité, Antilles, Mexique). Mémoires de la Société Paléontologique Suisse, 61, 1–42.Google Scholar
  62. Legendre. P. (2001). Program K-means User’s Guide. Pierre Legendre. Département de sciences biologiques. Université de Montréal, Quebec. (
  63. Lingrey, S. (2007). Plate tectonic setting and cenozoic deformation of Trinidad: foldbelt restoration in a region of significant strike-slip. In O. Lacombe, J. Lavé, F. Roure, & J. Vergés (Eds.), Thrust belts and forelands basins, from fold kinematics to hydrocarbon systems (pp. 163–178). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  64. Malabarba, M. C. S. L. (1991). One new fish remain from the Pirabas formation, tertiary of the Pará State, Brazil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (serie Ciências da Terra), 3, 3–10.Google Scholar
  65. Mihaljević, M., Klug, C., Aguilera, O., Wyss, P., Lüthi, T., Sánchez-Villagra, M. R. (2010). Diversity of Caribbean echinoids including new material from the Venezuelan Neogene. Palaeontologia Electronica, 13(3):20A–36. Scholar
  66. Milligan, G. W., & Cooper, M. C. (1985). An examination of procedures for determining the number of clusters in a data set. Psychometrika, 50, 159–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Newkirk, D. R., & Martin, E. E. (2009). Circulation through the Central American Seaway during the Miocene carbonate crash. Geology, 37, 87–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nieves-Rivera, A. M. (1999). En el mar prehistórico de Puerto Rico: ancestro del tiburón blanco. Boletín Marino Sea Grant, 20(1–3), 1–6.Google Scholar
  69. Nieves-Rivera, A. M., Ruiz-Yantín, M., & Gottfried, M. D. (2003). New record of the Lamnid shark Carcharodon megalodon from the Middle Miocene of Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Sciences, 39, 223–227.Google Scholar
  70. Nolf, D. (1976). Les otolithes de Téléosteens néogènes de Trinidad. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 69, 703–742.Google Scholar
  71. Nolf, D., & Aguilera, O. (1998). Fish otoliths from the Cantaure formation (Early Miocene of Venezuela). Bulletin de l′Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Bélgique, Sciences de la Terre, 68, 237–262.Google Scholar
  72. Nolf, D., & Stringer, G. L. (1992). Neogene paleontology in the northern Dominican Republic: Otoliths of teleostean fishes. Bulletin of American Paleontology, 102, 41–81.Google Scholar
  73. O’Dea, A., Herrera-Cubilla, A., Fortunato, H., & Jackson, J. (2004). Life history variation in cupuladriid bryozoans from eastern side of the Isthmus of Panama. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 280, 145–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. O’Dea, A., & Jackson, J. B. C. (2009). Environmental change drove macroevolution in cupuladriid bryozoans. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 276, 3629–3634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. O’Dea, A., Jackson, J. B. C., Fortunato, H., Smith, J. T., D’Croz, L., Johnson, K. G., et al. (2007). Environmental change preceding Caribbean extinction by 2 million years. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 104, 5501–5506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Oliveira, S. F. C. C., Toledo, P. M., & Costa, S. R. F. (2008). Escamas de tubarões (Pisces: Chondrichthyes) da Formação Pirabas (Eomioceno), Pará, Brasil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi Ciências Naturais, 3(3), 241–254.Google Scholar
  77. Petuch, E. J. (1982). Geographical heterochrony: contemporaneous coexistence of Neogene and Recent molluscan faunas in the Americas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 37, 277–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Petuch, E. J. (1988). Neogene history of tropical American mollusks. Biogeography and evolutionary patterns of tropical western Atlantic Mollusca. Charlottesville: Coastal Education and Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  79. Petuch, E. J. (2004). Cenozoic seas. The view from eastern North America. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  80. Pimiento, C., Ehret, D. J., MacFadden, B. J., & Hubbell, G. (2010). Ancient nursery area for the extinct Giant Shark Megalodon from the Miocene of Panama. PLoS ONE, 5(5), e10552. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pindell, J. L., & Barrett, S. F. (1990). Geologic evolution of the Caribbean; A plate-tectonic perspective. In G. Dengo & J. E. Case (Eds.), The Caribbean region: the geology of North America (pp. 405–432). Boulder: Geological Society of America.Google Scholar
  82. Pindell, J., Kennan, L., Maresch, W. V., Stanek, K.-P., Draper, G., & Higgs, R. (2005). Plate-kinematics and crustal dynamics of circum-Caribbean arc-continent interactions: Tectonic controls on basin development in Proto-Caribbean margins. In H. G. Avé Lallemant & V. B. Sisson (Eds.), Caribbean–South American late interactions Vol. 394 (pp. 7–52). Venezuela: Geological Society of America Special Paper.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Portell, R. W., Hubbell, G., Donovan, S. K., Green, J. L., Harper, D. A. T., & Pickerill, R. K. (2008). Miocene sharks in the Kendeace and Grand Bay formations of Carriacou, The Grenadines, Lesser Antilles. Caribb J Sci, 44(3), 279–286.Google Scholar
  84. Purdy, R. W., Donovan, S. K., Pickerill, R. K., & Dixon, H. L. (1996). Fish teeth from the Pleistocene of Jamaica. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 16, 165–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Quiróz, L., & Jaramillo, C. (2010). Stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of Miocene shallow to marginal marine deposits in the Urumaco Trough, Falcon Basin, western Venezuela. In M. Sánchez-Villagra, O. Aguilera, & F. Carlini (Eds.), Urumaco and Venezuelan Paleontology (pp. 153–172). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Ramos, M., Santos, H., Costa, S., Toledo, M. (2009). Catálogo de Fosseis: Coleção Paleontológica do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. BelémGoogle Scholar
  87. Reis, M. (2005). Chondrichthyan Fauna from the Pirabas formation, Miocene of Northern Brazil, with comments on Paleobiogeography. Anuário do Instituto de Geociências, 28(2), 31–58.Google Scholar
  88. Rosen, D. E. (1975). A vicariance model of Caribbean biogeography. Systematic Zoology, 24, 431–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rossetti, D., & Góes, A. (2004). Geologia. In D. Rossetti & A. Goes (Eds.), O Neogeno da Amazônia Oriental (pp. 13–52). Belém: Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi.Google Scholar
  90. Sánchez, M. (1920). Escuálidos del Mioceno y Plioceno de La Habana. Boletín de Minas, Dirección de Montes y Minas, 6, 1–16.Google Scholar
  91. Sánchez-Villagra, M. R., Burnham, R. J., Campbell, D. C., Feldmann, R. M., Gaffney, E. S., Kay, R. F., et al. (2000). A new near-shore marine fauna and flora from the Early Neogene of northwestern Venezuela. Journal of Paleontology, 74, 957–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Santos, R. S., & Salgado, M. S. (1971). Contribuição a paleontologia do Estado do Pará. Novos restos de peixes da Formação Pirabas. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (Serie Geológica), 16, 1–13.Google Scholar
  93. Santos, R. S., & Travassos, S. (1960). Contribuição a paleontologia do Estado do Pará. Peixes fósseis da Formação Pirabas. Monografia da Divisão de Geologia e Mineralogia, 16, 1–35.Google Scholar
  94. Schneider, B., & Schmittner, A. (2006). Simulating the impact of the Panamanian seaway closure on ocean circulation, marine productivity and nutrient cycling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 246, 367–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schwarzhans W (1993) A comparative morphological treatise of recent and fossil otoliths of the family Sciaenidae (Perciformes). Piscium Catalogus, Otolithi Piscium, Munich: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil.Google Scholar
  96. Schwarzhans, W. (1997). A comparative morphological treatise of recent and fossil otoliths of the order Pleuronectiformes. Piscium Catalogus, Otolithi Piscium. Munich: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil.Google Scholar
  97. Schweitzer CE, Iturralde-Vinent M (2005) Biogeography of Caribbean oligocene and Miocene decapods (Thalassinidea; Brachyura).
  98. Schweitzer, C. E., Iturralde-Vinent, M., Hetler, J. L., & Velez-Juarbe, J. (2006). Oligocene and Miocene decapods (Thalassinidea and Brachyura) from the Caribbean. Annals of Carnegie Museum, 75, 111–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Stringer, G. L. (1998). Otolitos-based fishes from the Bowden Shell Bed (Pliocene) of Jamaica: Systematic and Palaeoecology. Contribution of Tertiary and Quaternary Geology, 35, 147–160.Google Scholar
  100. Távora, V., Rodrigues dos Santos, A., & Neto, I. (2010a). Eventos biológicos da Formação Pirabas (Mioceno Inferior). Revista Brasileira de Geociências, 40, 256–264.Google Scholar
  101. Távora, V., Santos, A. A., & Araujo, R. N. (2010b). Localidades fossilíferas da Formação Pirabas (Mioceno Inferior). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi. Ciências Naturais, 5(2), 207–224.Google Scholar
  102. Wadge, G., & Bunke, K. (1983). Neogene Caribbean plate rotation and associated Central American tectonic evolution. Tectonics, 2(6), 633–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Webb, S. D. (2006). The great American biotic interchange: patterns and processes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 93, 245–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Woodburne, M. O. (2010). The great American Biotic interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 17, 245–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Woodring, W. P. (1974). The Miocene Caribbean faunal Province and its subprovinces. Verhandlungen der naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel, 84, 209–213.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akademie der Naturwissenschaften Schweiz (SCNAT) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Orangel Antonio Aguilera Socorro
    • 1
  • Maria Inês Feijó Ramos
    • 1
  • Eduardo Tavares Paes
    • 2
  • Sue Anne Regina Ferreira Costa
    • 1
  • Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra
    • 3
  1. 1.Departamento de GeociênciasMuseu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Coordenação de Ciências da Terra e Ecologia, CCTEBelémBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Socioambiental e dos Recursos HídricosUniversidade Federal Rural da AmazôniaBelémBrazil
  3. 3.Paläontologisches Institut und MuseumUniversität ZürichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations