Distribution and population structure of two phylogroups of the parasitoid Encarsia smithi (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in tea fields infested with the invasive camellia spiny whitefly Aleurocanthus camelliae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan
- 94 Downloads
A recent study revealed that two phylogenetic groups of the parasitoid Encarsia smithi (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) can attack the camellia spiny whitefly Aleurocanthus camelliae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), an invasive pest of Japanese tea fields. Type I was introduced in 1925 from China to Japanese citrus orchards to control the citrus spiny whitefly A. spiniferus, but it has also recently appeared in several tea fields. Type II, presumably introduced accidentally, was also found in many tea fields. However, little is known about distribution and their relative importance as a biocontrol agent in tea fields. To investigate these aspects, we developed specific PCR for the two groups using a variation in their nuclear ribosomal DNA’s ITS region. We then surveyed their distribution in 23 tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, from 2013 to 2015 using this specific PCR. We found that both types were distributed, sometimes coexisting, in many tea fields during 2013–2015, although the population structure of these types varied with the field, year and season. These results suggest that A. camelliae can be controlled unintentionally by accidentally introduced exotic natural enemies (Type II) and/or Type I species originally introduced to control other invasive pests such as A. spiniferus.
KeywordsAleurocanthus camelliae Encarsia smithi Parasitoid wasp Phylogenetic group Specific PCR
We thank the editor-in-chief and the two anonymous reviewers for their extremely helpful comments.
- Brust RA, Ballard JWO, Driver F, Hartley DM, Galway NJ, Curran J (1998) Molecular systematics and hybrid crossing identify a third taxon, Aedes (Halaedes) wardangensis sp.n., of the Aedes (Halaedes) australis species group (Diptera: Culicidae). Can J Zool 76:1236–1246. https://doi.org/10.1139/z98-051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kawamura M (1976) Ecological studies of Prospaltella smithi SILVESTRI. Bull Kochi Fruit Exp Sta Jpn 1:11–22 (in Japanese with English summary) Google Scholar
- Kuwana I (1934) Notes on a newly imported parasite of the spiny white fly attacking citrus in Japan. In: Proceeding of the fifth Pacific Science Congress organized by the Pacific Science Association and the National Research Council of Canada, Victoria and Vancouver, 1–14 June 1933, Toronto, University of Toronto, pp. 3521–3525Google Scholar
- Ohgushi R (1969) Ecology of citrus pests. Rural Culture Association, TokyoGoogle Scholar
- Ozawa A, Uchiyama T, Kosugi Y, Haga H (2015) Distribution of the parasitoid Encarsia smithi (Silvestri) on the tea spiny whitefly Aleurocanthus camelliae Kanmiya & Kasai in tea fields in Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. Tea Res J 119:1–6 (in Japanese with English summary) Google Scholar
- Uesugi R, Yara K, Sato Y (2016b) Changes in population density of Aleurocanthus camelliae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and parasitism rate of Encarsia smithi (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) during the early invasion stages. Appl Entomol Zool 51:581–588. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13355-016-0434-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yamashita K, Kasai A, Suzuki Y, Yoshiyasu Y (2016) Population dynamics of the camellia spiny whitefly, Aleurocanthus camelliae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in tea fields during the early phase of invasion into Kyoto, Japan. Appl Entomol Zool 51:117–124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13355-015-0380-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yara K, Sasawaki T, Kunimi Y (2007) Displacement of Torymus beneficus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) by T. sinensis, an indigenous and introduced parasitoid of the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), in Japanese chestnut fields: possible involvement in hybridization. Biol Control 42:148–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2007.04.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yara K, Sasawaki T, Kunimi Y (2010) Hybridization between introduced Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) and indigenous T. beneficus (late-spring strain), parasitoids of the Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Biol Control 54:14–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2010.03.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yara K, Shimoda T, Sato Y (2017) Rearing method for the two strains of Encarsia smithi (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) using citrus seedlings infested with Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Jpn J Appl Entomol Zool 61:131–134. https://doi.org/10.1303/jjaez.2017.131 (in Japanese with English summary) CrossRefGoogle Scholar