Applied Entomology and Zoology

, Volume 52, Issue 4, pp 643–651 | Cite as

Transcriptome sequencing and estimation of DNA methylation level in the subsocial wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Blattodea: Cryptocercidae)

  • Yoshinobu Hayashi
  • Kiyoto Maekawa
  • Christine A. Nalepa
  • Toru Miura
  • Shuji Shigenobu
Original Research Paper


The wood-feeding cockroach genus Cryptocercus is a subsocial and sister group of the eusocial cockroaches, i.e., termites. Although Cryptocercus is a key taxon for understanding the evolution of eusociality in the Blattodea (cockroaches and termites), few genetic resources are available for comparative genetic analyses. In this study, we conducted transcriptome sequencing of Cryptocercus punctulatus Scudder using next-generation sequencing technology to generate a massive genetic resource. By transcriptome sequencing and subsequent de novo transcriptome assembly, we obtained 132,191 contigs. The assembled transcriptome contained almost all of the conserved core eukaryote or insect genes. Furthermore, juvenile hormone- and DNA methylation-related genes that are considered to be key genes for the caste polyphenism in eusocial insects, were identified from the transcriptome assembly. In addition, the ratio of the observed (O) cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) content to the expected (E) one (CpG O/E), which is a proxy for the DNA methylation level, was calculated for coding regions extracted from the assembly. The CpG O/E values were less than 1 in most of the coding regions, and the frequency distribution of the CpG O/E values was bimodal rather than unimodal. These results indicate that most C. punctulatus genes are involved in DNA methylation.


DNA methyltransferase De novo transcriptome assembly Gene repertoire Juvenile hormone 



We thank Dr. K. Yamaguchi for technical support with the Illumina sequencing, and are grateful to the director and staff of Mountain Lake Biological Station for permission to work on their grounds. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this article. Computational resources were provided by the Data Integration and Analysis Facility, NIBB. This study was conducted as part of the Model Organism Development Collaborative Research Projects of NIBB, and was supported by a Grant for Basic Science Research Projects from the Sumitomo Foundation (no. 150189 to Y. H.) and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI (Grant Nos. JP16K18591 and 25251041 to Y. H. and T. M., respectively).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (FA 163561 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (FA 74129 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (FA 27780 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshinobu Hayashi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kiyoto Maekawa
    • 3
  • Christine A. Nalepa
    • 4
  • Toru Miura
    • 1
    • 5
  • Shuji Shigenobu
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Graduate School of Environmental ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Department of BiologyKeio UniversityYokohamaJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Science and EngineeringUniversity of ToyamaToyamaJapan
  4. 4.Department of EntomologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  5. 5.Misaki Marine Biological Station, Graduate School of ScienceUniversity of TokyoMiuraJapan
  6. 6.Core Research Facilities, National Institute for Basic BiologyNational Institutes of Natural SciencesOkazakiJapan
  7. 7.Department of Basic Biology, School of Life ScienceGraduate University for Advanced StudiesOkazakiJapan

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