Incidence of resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in greenhouse populations of the whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Greece
- 319 Downloads
The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, is an important pest of field and greenhouse crops of horticultural and ornamental plants. In integrated pest management programs its control is mainly based on the release of biological control agents and application of chemical insecticides. Neonicotinoids are relatively new chemicals currently applied for the chemical control of T. vaporariorum. However, cases of development of insecticide resistance to neonicotinoids have already been reported. The state of resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides for populations of the greenhouse whitefly in Greece is currently unknown. The objective of our study was to screen a number of whitefly populations for resistance to the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiacloprid. Seven whitefly populations were collected from tomato greenhouse crops from different areas of central and northern Greece. LC50 values were estimated for all populations following the method proposed by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC). The development of resistance to both neonicotinoids was confirmed for all tested populations with resistance ratios ranging from 1.5 to 4.4-fold and from 1.4 to 12.2-fold for imidacloprid and thiacloprid, respectively. We discuss our results with regard to the development of neonicotinoid resistance in T. vaporariorum populations and its implications for whitefly control.
KeywordsGreenhouse whitefly Neonicotinoids Insecticide resistance Imidacloprid Thiacloprid
The authors would like to thank Christos Xanthis and Konstantinos Samaras for help in maintaining the whitefly rearings. Two anonymous reviewers are acknowledged for their comments on an earlier version of our manuscript.
- Anonymous (2009) IRAC susceptibility test methods series, Method No. 015. http://www.irac-online.org
- Karatolos N, Denholm I, Williamson M, Nauen R, Gorman K (2010) Incidence and characterisation of resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides and pymetrozine in the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Pest Manag Sci 66(12):1304–1307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Longhurst C, Babcock JM, Denholm I, Gorman K, Thomas JD, Sparks TC (2012) Cross-resistance relationships of the sulfoximine insecticide sulfoxaflor with neonicotinoids and other insecticides in the whiteflies Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Pest Manag Sci 69:809–813CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Margaritopoulos JT, Skouras PJ, Nikolaidou P, Manolikaki J, Maritsa K, Tsamandani K, Kanavaki OM, Bacandritsos N, Zarpas KD, Tsitsipis JA (2007) Insecticide resistance status of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations from peach and tobacco in mainland Greece. Pest Manag Sci 63(8):821–829CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Puinean AM, Foster SP, Oliphant L, Denholm I, Field LM, Millar NS, Williamson MS, Bass C (2010) Amplification of a cytochrome P450 gene is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae. PLoS Genet 6(6):e1000999. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000999
- Roditakis E, Morou E, Tsagkarakou A, Riga M, Nauen R, Paine M, Morin S, Vontas J (2011) Assessment of the Bemisia tabaci CYP6CM1vQ transcript and protein levels in laboratory and field-derived imidacloprid-resistant insects and cross-metabolism potential of the recombinant enzyme. Insect Sci 18(1):23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- SPSS Inc (2010) IBM SPSS Statistics Base 19, Copyright SPSS Inc. 1989Google Scholar
- Van Lenteren JC (1995) Integrated pest management in protected crops. In: Dent D (ed) Integrated pest management. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 311–343Google Scholar
- Van Lenteren JC, Martin NA (2000) Biological control of whiteflies. In: Albajes R, Gullino M, van Lenteren JC, Elad Y (eds) Integrated pest and disease management in greenhouse crops. Kluwer Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 202–214Google Scholar