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Applied Entomology and Zoology

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 415–420 | Cite as

Sex pheromone of the African armyworm Spodoptera exempta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): identification of components of the Okinawan population and formulation for population monitoring

  • Sadao WakamuraEmail author
  • Hiroe Yasui
  • Masayuki Shimatani
  • Tadaakira Tokashiki
  • Tamio Okuhira
  • Nao Fujiwara-Tsujii
  • Masanori Ishikawa
  • Takumi Uesato
  • Hiroshi Zukeyama
  • Hiroshi Tôbaru
Original Research Paper

Abstract

In 2010, abrupt outbreaks of the African armyworm, Spodoptera exempta (Walker), occured on the Tarama, Iriomote and Kikai Islands in southwestern Japan. Analysis by gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) revealed two EAG-active compounds on male antenna in crude extract of virgin females. These compounds were identified as (9Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac) and (9Z,12E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z9E12-14:Ac) in ca. 90:10 ratio by subsequent GC-MS analyses. (11Z)-11-Hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), which had previously been identified as a third component in the Kenyan population, was not detected. Binary blends of Z9-14:Ac and Z9E12-14:Ac at ratios between 99:1 and 90:10 showed a potent attractiveness in the field, superior to that of virgin females and comparable to that of the three-component formulation determined in Kenya. For the population survey, a 98:2 blend was used. In Tarama, only a few moths of S. exempta were captured with a light trap during the night when more than 600 males were captured with synthetic sex pheromone; more S. exempta captures with a light trap had been reported than with sex-pheromone traps in Kenya. This indicates that the Okinawan population has different properties from the Kenyan population in pheromone composition and behavioral response to light.

Keywords

Sex pheromone Allopatric population Pheromone component Phototaxis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Ayako Yamaguchi of the Miyako Substation of OPPPC and Naoki Haneji of the Tarama Village Office for cooperation in the collection of insects and operation of field experiments. Thanks are also due to Masahiro Taniguchi of Okinawa Prefectural Government, Keiji Yasuda of OPPPC for encouragement throughout the investigations and Serge Glushkoff for editing the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sadao Wakamura
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  • Hiroe Yasui
    • 2
  • Masayuki Shimatani
    • 1
  • Tadaakira Tokashiki
    • 3
  • Tamio Okuhira
    • 4
  • Nao Fujiwara-Tsujii
    • 2
  • Masanori Ishikawa
    • 1
  • Takumi Uesato
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Zukeyama
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Tôbaru
    • 1
  1. 1.Okinawa Prefectural Plant Protection Center (OPPPC)NahaJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Insect BehaviorNational Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS)OhwashiJapan
  3. 3.Okinawa Prefectural Miyako Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Promotion Center, c/o Tarama Village OfficeOkinawaJapan
  4. 4.Tarama Village OfficeOkinawaJapan
  5. 5.Faculty of Bioenvironmental ScienceKyoto Gakuen UniversityKameokaJapan

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