Genome incompatibility between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sea trout (Salmo trutta) and induction of the interspecies gynogenesis
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Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) and sea trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) show large karyotypic differences and their hybrid offspring is not viable due to unstable karyotype and chromosome fragmentation. However, gametes from these two species were used to induce gynogenetic development. Rainbow trout eggs activated by UV-irradiated sea trout sperm were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) shock to prevent release of the 2nd polar body (early shock) or to inhibit the first cleavage (late shock) in order to produce diploid meiotic gynogenotes and gynogenetic doubled haploids (DHs), respectively. Cytogenetic analysis proved fish that development was induced by the sea trout spermatozoa were rainbow trout. In turn, molecular examination confirmed homozygosity of the gynogenetic DHs. Presumed appearance of the recessive alleles resulted in lower survival of the gynogenetic DH larvae (~25%) when compared to survival of the heterozygous (meiotic) gynogenotes (c. 50%). Our results proved that genomic incompatibilities between studied trout species result in the hybrid unviability. However, artificial gynogenesis including activation of rainbow trout eggs with UV-irradiated sea trout spermatozoa was successfully induced. As both species are unable to cross, application of the UV-irradiated sea trout spermatozoa to activate rainbow trout development assures only maternal inheritance with no contamination by the residues of the paternal chromosomes.
KeywordsChromosome fragments Gynogenesis Heterologous sperm Hybrids High hydrostatic pressure UV radiation
This study was supported in part by the National Science Centre (NCN) Poland project number 2014/15/BNZ9/00510 and by JSPS-PAN under the Japan-Poland Research Cooperative Program in 2015 to 2016FY. We thank Janusz Krom and Rafał Rożyński from the Department of Salmonid Research, Inland Fisheries Institute in Olsztyn, Rutki for their technical assistance during the experiment.
KO, TZ and SD were involved in designing and performing the experiments. TZ took care of gynogenetic and control embryos and larvae. MP made molecular analysis. TF, KO, and MP were involved in the chromosome preparation, data analysis, writing, and editing the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
None of the authors have any conflict of interest to declare.
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