Radiometric Cross-Calibration for Multiple Sensors with the Moon as an Intermediate Reference
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The instrument cross-calibration is an effective way to assess the quality of satellite data. In this study, a new method is proposed to cross-calibrate the sensors among satellite instruments by using a RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) model and Apollo sample reflectance in reflective solar bands (RSBs). The ROLO model acts as a transfer radiometer to bridge between the instruments. The reflective spectrum of the Apollo sample is used to compensate for the difference in the instrument’s relative spectral responses (RSRs). In addition, the double ratio between the observed lunar irradiance and the simulated lunar irradiance is used to reduce the difference in instrument lunar viewing and illumining geometry. This approach is applied to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on board three satellites, respectively. The mean difference between MODIS and SeaWiFS is less than 3.14%, and the difference between MODIS and ALI is less than 4.75%. These results indicate that the proposed cross-calibration method not only compensates for the RSR mismatches but also reduces the differences in lunar observation geometry. Thus, radiance calibration of any satellite instrument can be validated with a reference instrument bridged by the moon.
Key wordsradiometric cross-calibration multiple sensors calibration reference
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The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Tom Stone for making their ROLO lunar irradiance models publicly available and D. Y. Wang for providing the lunar irradiance of the satellite. We also thank the MODIS and SeaWiFS groups for freely providing their high-quality data.
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