Long-Term Integration of a Global Non-Hydrostatic Atmospheric Model on an Aqua Planet
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A global non-hydrostatic atmospheric model, i.e., GRAPES_YY (Global/Regional Assimilation and Prediction System on the Yin–Yang grid), with a semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian (SISL) dynamical core developed on the Yin–Yang grid was coupled with the physical parameterization package of the operational version of GRAPES. A 3.5-yr integration was carried out on an aqua planet to assess the numerical performance of this non-hydrostatic model relative to other models. Specific aspects of precipitation and general circulation under two different sea surface temperature (SST) conditions (CONTROL and FLAT) were analyzed. The CONTROL SST peaked at the equator. The FLAT SST had its maximum gradient at about 20° latitude, giving a broad equatorial SST maximum in the tropics and flat profile approaching the equator. The tropical precipitation showed different propagation features in the CONTROL and FLAT simulations. The CONTROL showed tropical precipitation bands moving eastward with some envelopes of westward convective-scale disturbance. Less organized westward-propagating rainfall cells and bands were seen in the FLAT and the propagation of the tropical wave varied with the SST gradient. The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Hadley cell, and westerly jet core were weaker and more poleward as the SST profile flattened from the CONTROL to FLAT. The climatological structures simulated by GRAPES_YY, such as the distribution of precipitation and the large-scale circulation, fell within the bounds from other models. The stronger ITCZ precipitation, accompanied with stronger Hadley cells and convective heating in the CONTROL simulation, may be summed up as a result of stronger parameterized convection and the non-hydrostatic effects in GRAPES_YY. In addition, mechanism of the zonal mean circulation maintaining is analyzed for the different SST patterns referring the transient eddy flux.
Key wordsnon-hydrostatic model Yin–Yang grid physical parameterizations aqua planet experiment
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We appreciate the editors and the anonymous reviewers’ constructive comments and valuable suggestions. We would like to thank Qijun Liu, Xingliang Li, and Zhanshan Ma for their help in developing the model code and providing insightful comments on the manuscript.
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