A Heavy Rainfall Event in Autumn over Beijing—Atmospheric Circulation Background and Hindcast Simulation Using WRF
Heavy rainfall events often occur in Beijing during summer but rarely in autumn. However, during 3–5 September 2015, an exceptionally heavy rainfall event occurred in Beijing. Based on the reanalysis data and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations, the main contributing factors and the predictability of this heavy rainfall event were examined through comprehensive analyses of vorticity advection and water vapor transport/ budget. The results indicate that a “high-in-the-east–low-in-the-west” pattern of 500-hPa geopotential height over the Beijing area played an important role. The 850-hPa low-level jet (LLJ) provided a mechanism for rising motion and transported abundant water vapor into the Beijing area. Two-way nested hindcast experiments using WRF well reproduced the atmospheric circulation and LLJ. Quantitative analysis indicates that the WRF model with the rapid update cycle (RUC) land surface scheme and the single-moment 6-class (WSM6) microphysics scheme exhibited the best skill, and the model performance improved with a higher resolution. Further analysis indicates that the bias in the precipitation forecast was caused by the bias in water vapor transport.
Key wordsheavy rainfall WRF model water vapor supply autumn Beijing area
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The authors thank Professor Hui Gao at the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration and the anonymous reviewers for helpful comments.
- Chen Y., J. Sun, J. Xu, et al., 2012: Analysis of the extreme features of the 21 July 2012 torrential rain in Beijing. Part I: Observations and related thoughts. Meteor. Mon., 38, 1255–1266, doi: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2012.10.012. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Fan S. Y., Y. R. Guo, M. Chen,, et al., 2008: Application of WRF 3DVar to a high resolution model over the Beijing area. Plateau Meteor., 27, 1181–1188. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Hong S. Y., K. S. Lim., J. H. Kim, et al., 2006: The WRF singlemoment 6-class microphysics scheme (WSM6). J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 42, 129–151.Google Scholar
- Liu H. Z., W. G. Wang, M. X. Shao, et al., 2007: A case study of the influence of the western Pacific subtropical high on the torrential rainfall in Beijing area. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 727–734, doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2007.04.17. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Skamarock W. C., J. B. Klemp, J. Dudhia, et al., 2008: A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN–475+STR, Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 125 pp, doi: 10.5065/D68S4MVH.Google Scholar
- Sun J. H., S. X. Zhao, S. M. Fu, et al., 2013: Multi-scale characteristics of record heavy rainfall over Beijing area on July 21. 2012. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 705–718, doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2013.12202. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Sun J. S., 2005: A study of the basic features and mechanism of boundary layer jet in Beijing area. Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 445–452, doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2005.03.12. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Sun J. S., L. Lei, B. Yu, et al., 2015: The fundamental features of the extreme severe rain events in the recent 10 years in the Beijing area. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 73, 609–623, doi: 10.11676/qxxb2015.044. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Tao Z. Y., and Y. G. Zheng, 2013: Forecasting issues of the extreme heavy rain in Beijing on 21 July 2012. Torrential Rain and Disasters, 32, 193–201, doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-9045.2013.03.001. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Tewari M., F. Chen, W. Wang, et al., 2004: Implementation and verification of the unified Noah land surface model in the WRF model. 20th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting/ 16th Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, Seattle, WA, US, 2004, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 11–15.Google Scholar
- Wang J. L., R. H. Zhang, and Y. C. Wang, 2012: Characteristics of precipitation in Beijing and the precipitation representativeness of Beijing weather observatory. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 23, 265–273, doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7313.2012.03.002. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Wang X. M., X. G. Zhou, Z. Y. Tao, et al., 2013: Quasigeostrophic theory and its application based on baroclinic two-layer model. Acta Phys. Sinica, 62, 029201, doi: 10.7498/aps.62.029201. (in Chinese)Google Scholar