Vertical Distribution Characteristics of PM2.5 Observed by a Mobile Vehicle Lidar in Tianjin, China in 2016
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We present mobile vehicle lidar observations in Tianjin, China during the spring, summer, and winter of 2016. Mobile observations were carried out along the city border road of Tianjin to obtain the vertical distribution characteristics of PM2.5. Hygroscopic growth was not considered since relative humidity was less than 60% during the observation experiments. PM2.5 profile was obtained with the linear regression equation between the particle extinction coefficient and PM2.5 mass concentration. In spring, the vertical distribution of PM2.5 exhibited a hierarchical structure. In addition to a layer of particles that gathered near the ground, a portion of particles floated at 0.6–2.5-km height. In summer and winter, the fine particles basically gathered below 1 km near the ground. In spring and summer, the concentration of fine particles in the south was higher than that in the north because of the influence of south wind. In winter, the distribution of fine particles was opposite to that measured during spring and summer. High concentrations of PM2.5 were observed in the rural areas of North Tianjin with a maximum of 350 μg m–3 on 13 December 2016. It is shown that industrial and ship emissions in spring and summer and coal combustion in winter were the major sources of fine particles that polluted Tianjin. The results provide insights into the mechanisms of haze formation and the effects of meteorological conditions during haze–fog pollution episodes in the Tianjin area.
Keywordsmobile vehicle lidar vertical concentration profile fine particle
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The authors gratefully acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory for providing the HYSPLIT model and the Google Earth for providing the map used in this study. We also thank Chinese Academy of Sciences Wuxi Photonics Co.,Ltd. for providing part of the lidar data measured in April 2016 and their help during the experiment.
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