Journal of Meteorological Research

, Volume 29, Issue 6, pp 950–965 | Cite as

Effect of urbanization on the urban meteorology and air pollution in Hangzhou

  • Hongnian Liu (刘红年)
  • Wanli Ma (马万里)
  • Junlong Qian (钱俊龙)
  • Juzhen Cai (蔡菊珍)
  • Xianman Ye (叶贤满)
  • Jiahui Li (李佳惠)
  • Xueyuan Wang (王学远)


Urbanization has a substantial effect on urban meteorology. It can alter the atmospheric diffusion capability in urban areas and therefore affect pollutant concentrations. To study the effects of Hangzhou’s urban development in most recent decade on its urban meteorological characteristics and pollutant diffusion, 90 weather cases were simulated, covering 9 weather types, with the Nanjing University City Air Quality Prediction System and high-resolution surface-type data and urban construction data for 2000 and 2010. The results show that the most recent decade of urban development in Hangzhou substantially affected its urban meteorology. Specifically, the average urban wind speed decreased by 1.1 m s −1; the average intensity of the heat island increased by 0.5°C; and the average urban relative humidity decreased by 9.7%. Based on one case for each of the nine weather types, the impact of urbanization on air pollution diffusion was investigated, revealing that the changes in the meteorological environment decreased the urban atmosphere’s diffusion capability, and therefore increased urban pollutant concentrations. For instance, the urban nitrogen oxides concentration increased by 2.1 μg m −3 on average; the fine particulate matter (diameter of 2.5 μm or less; PM2.5) pollution concentration increased by 2.3 μg m −3 on average; in highly urbanized areas, the PM2.5 concentration increased by 30 μg m −3 and average visibility decreased by 0.2 km, with a maximum decrease of 1 km; the average number of daily hours of haze increased by 0.46 h; and the haze height lifted by 100–300 m. The “self-cleaning time” of pollutants increased by an average of 1.5 h.


Hangzhou urbanization atmospheric environment haze 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agustí-Panareda, A., S. L. Gray, and J. Methven, 2005: Numerical modeling study of boundary-layer ventilation by a cold front over Europe. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angevine, W. M., M. Tjernstrom, and M. Zagar, 2006: Modeling of the coastal boundary layer and pollutant transport in New England. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 137–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen Yan and Jiang Weimei, 2006: The numerical experiments of the effect of urban buildings on boundary layer structure. Plateau Meteor., 25, 824–833. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Chen Bing, Shi Guangyu, Wang Biao, et al., 2012: Estimation of the anthropogenic heat release distribution in China from 1992 to 2009. Acta Meteor. Sinica, 26, 507–515, doi: 10.1007/s13351-012-0409-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. China Meteorological Administration, 2010: Observation and Forecast Grade of Fog and Haze. Meteorological Industry Standard of the People’s Republic of China. QX/T 113–2010, 3 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Civerolo, K., C. Hogrefe, B. Lynn, et al., 2007: Estimating the effects of increased urbanization on surface meteorology and ozone concentrations in the New York City metropolitan region. Atmos. Environ., 41, 1803–1818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dacre, H. F., S. L. Gray, and S. E. Belcher, 2007: A case study of boundary layer ventilation by convection and coastal processes. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D17106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Esler, J. G., P. H. Haynes, K. S. Law, et al., 2007: Transport and mixing between airmasses in cold frontal regions during dynamics and chemistry of frontal zones (DCFZ). J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fang Xiaoyi, Jiang Weimei, Wu Jian, et al., 2004: Study on the development of numerical model system to predict urban air quality. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 24, 111–115.Google Scholar
  10. Jin Jun, Wu Jian, Cai Juzhen, et al., 2010: Analyses of the characteristics and formation of haze pollution in Hangzhou. Environ. Pollut. Control, 32, 61–63, 67. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. Liu Hongnian, Hu Rongzhang, and Zhang Meigen, 2009: Development and application of urban haze numerical forecast model. Res. Environ. Sci., 22, 631–636. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. Lu Mengyao, Liu Hongnian, Zhang Ning, et al., 2011: Numerical simulation of impact factors of urban haze in Nanjing area. Plateau Meteor., 30, 929–941. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. Ma Xinye and Zhang Yaocun, 2015: Numerical study of the impacts of urban expansion on Meiyu precipitation over eastern China. J. Meteor. Res., 29, 237–256, doi: 10.1007/s13351-015-4063-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mao Minjuan, Liu Houtong, Xu Honghui, et al., 2013: The key factor research of haze with the combined application of the multi element data. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 33, 806–813.Google Scholar
  15. Miao Shiguang, Chen Fei, Li Qingchun, et al., 2010: Month-averaged impacts of urbanization on atmospheric boundary layer structure and precipitation in summer in Beijing area. Chinese J. Geophys., 53, 1580–1593. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Nehrkorn, T., J. Henderson, M. Leidner, et al., 2013: WRF simulations of the urban circulation in the Salt Lake City area for CO2 modeling. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 323–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Peng Zhen and Hu Fei, 2006: A study of the influence of urbanization of Beijing on the boundary wind structure. Chinese J. Geophys., 49, 1608–1615. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. Qian Junlong, Liu Hongnian, Tang Lijuan, et al., 2013: Numerical simulation of the urban haze and the contribution of aerosol to ambient light extinction in the Suzhou area, Jiangsu, eastern China. J. Nanjing Univ. (Nat. Sci.), 49, 311–319. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. Qian Junlong, Liu Hongnian, Lin Hunjuan, et al., 2015: Numerical simulation of the impact of urban growth on Suzhou’s urban haze. J. Nanjing Univ. (Nat. Sci.), 51, 551–561. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. Raupach, M. R., 1992: Drag and drag partition on rough surfaces. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 60, 375–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Skvortsov, A., M. Jamriska, and T. C. DuBois, 2013: Tracer dispersion in the turbulent convective layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 4112–4121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sorbjan, Z., and M. Uliasz, 1982: Some numerical urban boundary-layer studies. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 22, 481–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Uno, I., H. Ueda, and S. Wakamatsu, 1989: Numerical modeling of the nocturnal urban boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 49, 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Urano, A., T. Ichinose, and K. Hanaki, 1999: Thermal environment simulation for three dimensional replacement of urban activity. J. Wind Engin. Industr. Aerodyn., 81, 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Verma, S., O. Boucher, C. Venkataraman, et al., 2006: Aerosol lofting from sea breeze during the Indian Ocean experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07208.Google Scholar
  26. Wang, X. M., W. S. Lin, L. M. Yang, et al., 2007: A numerical study of influences of urban land-use change on ozone distribution over the Pearl River Delta region, China. Tellus B, 59, 633–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang, X. M., Z. Y. Wu, and G. X. Liang, 2009: WRF/CHEM modeling of impacts of weather conditions modified by urban expansion on secondary organic aerosol formation over Pearl River Delta. Particuology, 7, 384–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang Yongwei, Jiang Weimei, Guo Wenli, et al., 2008: Numerical study of the urban scale and layout effect on atmospheric environment. Chinese J. Geophys., 51, 88–100.Google Scholar
  29. Wang Zhiming and Wang Xuemei, 2011: Estimation and sensitivity test of anthropogenic heat flux in Guangzhou. Scientia Meteor. Sinica, 31, 422–430. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Xu Xiangde, 2002: Dynamic issues of urban atmospheric pollution models. J. Appl. Meteor. Sci., 13, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Xu Xiangde, Zhou Xiuji, and Shi Xiaohui, 2005: Spatial structure and scale of the atmospheric pollution source impact of city agglomeration. Sci. China (Ser. D), 48, 1–24.Google Scholar
  32. Zhang Yunwei, Zhang Qun, Leng Chunpeng, et al., 2015: Evolution of aerosol vertical distribution during particulate pollution events in Shanghai. J. Meteor. Res., 29, 385–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhou Shuzhen and Yu Bixia, 1988: Shanghai urban influences on wind velocity. J. East China Norm. Univ. (Nat. Sci.), 3, 67–76. (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Meteorological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongnian Liu (刘红年)
    • 1
  • Wanli Ma (马万里)
    • 2
  • Junlong Qian (钱俊龙)
    • 1
  • Juzhen Cai (蔡菊珍)
    • 3
  • Xianman Ye (叶贤满)
    • 4
  • Jiahui Li (李佳惠)
    • 1
  • Xueyuan Wang (王学远)
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Atmospheric SciencesNanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Hangzhou Environmental Meteorological CenterHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Zhejiang Climate CenterHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Hangzhou Environmental Monitoring Central StationHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations