Advertisement

Vibrations of a hydropower plant under operational loads

  • Klun MatejaEmail author
  • Zupan Dejan
  • Kryžanowski Andrej
Original Paper
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

This paper presents the investigation of dynamic properties of a concrete gravity dam. Structural vibration measurements are an important part of structural monitoring, especially for the structures with high importance. The investigation started with the construction of the Brežice dam on the Sava River cascading system in Slovenia, where we have conducted in-situ structural response measurements. For the purpose of our investigation, several discrete points on the structure were chosen. A novel methodology was introduced with the inclusion of the Laser Doppler Vibrometer where the structural response of the dam excited with construction works was determined. The aim of the initial studies was to capture the primary dynamic properties as a baseline for further diagnostic. Further investigation included accelerometers and speed transducers. The inclusion of structural monitoring during the testing of the mechanical equipment enabled identification of the majority of the transient actions that can occur on the hydropower dams and captured their signature in the temporal and frequency response. Measurements on the turbines during operation provided the key in identifying the response of the whole system. The captured time series were transformed in the frequency spectrum using the Fast Fourier Transformation. Furthermore, a numerical model of the structure was built where by changing the Young modulus, the ageing process of concrete and its effect on the eigenfrequencies are simulated.

Keywords

Dam Monitoring Vibration Laser Doppler vibrometer Structural health monitoring Operational loads Turbines 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The project is professionally supported by the hydropower company Hidroelektrarne na spodnji Savi, d.o.o. (HESS). The company allowed the publication of the results. The professional support of HESS is greatly acknowledged by the authors of this paper.

References

  1. 1.
    SLOCOLD. List of large dams in Slovenia. http://www.slocold.si/e_pregrade_seznam.htm. Accessed 6 Jan 2018
  2. 2.
    Su H, Hu J, Wen Z (2013) Service life predicting of dam systems with correlated failure modes. J Perform Constr Facil 27(3):252–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    USBR, “National Inventory of Dams Dataset.” Website: http://nid.usace.army.mil/, 2018. Accessed:12.6.2018
  4. 4.
    ANCOLD. Register of Large Dams in Australia. https://www.ancold.org.au/?page_id=24, 2018. Accessed 12 Jun 2018
  5. 5.
    Antonovskaya GN, Kapustian NK, Moshkunov AI, Danilov AV, Moshkunov KA (2017) New seismic array solution for earthquake observations and hydropower plant health monitoring. J Seismol 21(5):1039–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Deschênes C, Fraser R, Fau JP (2002) New trends in turbine modelling and new ways of partnership. In: International Conference on Hydraulic Efficiency Measurement—IGHEM, Toronto, Canada, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goyal R, Gandhi BK (2018) Review of hydrodynamics instabilities in Francis turbine during off-design and transient operations. Renew Energy 116:697–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fu T, Deng ZD, Duncan JP, Zhou D, Carlson TJ, Johnson GE, Hou H (2016) Assessing hydraulic conditions through Francis turbines using an autonomous sensor device. Renew Energy 99:1244–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Trivedi C, Gandhi B, Michel CJ (2013) Effect of transients on Francis turbine runner life: a review. J Hydraul Res 51(2):121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Trivedi C, Gandhi BK, Cervantes MJ, Dahlhaug OG (2015) Experimental investigations of a model Francis turbine during shutdown at synchronous speed. Renew Energy 83:828–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sinha KHGBP, Tulin LG (1964) Stress–strain relations for concrete under cyclic loading. J Proc 61(2)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aslani F, Jowkarmeimandi R (2012) Stress-strain model for concrete under cyclic loading. Mag Concr Res 64(8):673–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Srinivas V, Sasmal S, Ramanjaneyulu K (2014) Damage-sensitive features from non-linear vibration response of reinforced concrete structures. Struct Health Monit 13(3):233–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Malm R, Hassanzadeh M, Gasch T, Eriksson D, Nordstrom E (2012) Cracking in the concrete foundation for hydropower generators Cracking in the concrete foundation for hydropower generators, Elforsk rapport 13:63,” tech. rep., StockholmGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ansell A, Ekström T, Hassanzadeh M, Malm R (2010) Crack propagation in buttress dams application of non-linear models—Part II Elforsk report 10: 69. Tech. Rep, September, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lopez F, Velez LR (2003) Assessment and structural rehabilitation with post-tensioning and CFRP of a mass concrete structure subjected to dynamic loading. In: FIB Symposium Concrete Structures in Seismic Regions, Athens, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bukenya P, Moyo P, Beushausen H, Oosthuizen C (2014) Health monitoring of concrete dams: a literature review. J Civ Struct Health Monit 4(4):235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mooney MA, Gorman PB, Gonzalez JN (2005) Vibration-based health monitoring of earth structures. Struct Health Monit 4(2):137–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Humar J, Bagchi A, Xu H (2006) Performance of vibration-based techniques for the identification of structural damage. Struct Health Monit 5(3):215–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brownjohn JM, de Stefano A, Xu Y-L, Wenzel H, Aktan AE (2011) Vibration-based monitoring of civil infrastructure: challenges and successes. J Civ Struct Health Monit 1(3–4):79–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Daniell W, Taylor C (1999) Effective ambient vibration testing for validating numerical models of concrete dams. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 28:1327–1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Worden K, Farrar CR, Manson G, Park G (2007) The fundamental axioms of structural health monitoring. Proc R Soc Math Phys Eng Sci 463:1639–1664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    “Governmental Decree for on Detailed Plan of National Importance for HPP Brežice area.” http://www.pisrs.si/Pis.web/pregledPredpisa?id=URED6213, 2012. Online; accessed 29 (January 2014)
  24. 24.
    Yeh Y, Cummins HZ (1964) Localized fluid flow measurements with an HeNe laser spectrometer. Appl Phys Lett 4(10):176–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rothberg SJ, Allen MS, Castellini P, Di Maio D, Dirckx JJ, Ewins DJ, Halkon BJ, Muyshondt P, Paone N, Ryan T, Steger H, Tomasini EP, Vanlanduit S, Vignola JF (2017) An international review of laser Doppler vibrometry: making light work of vibration measurement. Optics Lasers Eng 99:11–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zorović M, Čokl A (2015) Laser vibrometry as a diagnostic tool for detecting wood-boring beetle larvae. J Pest Sci 88(1):107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gladiné K, Muyshondt PG, Dirckx JJ (2017) Human middle-ear nonlinearity measurements using laser Doppler vibrometry. Optics Lasers Eng 99:98–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zucca S, Di Maio D, Ewins DJ (2012) Measuring the performance of underplatform dampers for turbine blades by rotating laser Doppler vibrometer. Mech Syst Signal Process 32:269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Castellini P, Paone N, Tomasini EP (1996) The laser Doppler vibrometer as an instrument for nonintrusive diagnostic of works of art: application to fresco paintings. Optics Lasers Eng 25(4–5):227–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Donges A, Noll R (2015) Laser measurement technology: fundamentals and applications (Springer Series in Optical Sciences)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Halkon BJ, Rothberg SJ (2015) A practical guide to laser Doppler vibrometry measurements directly from rotating surfaces. In: IMechE Vibrations in Rotating Machinery (VIRM11), (Manchester), Institution of Mechanical EngineersGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rothberg SJ, Tirabassi M (2012) A universal framework for modelling measured velocity in laser vibrometry with applications. Mech Syst Signal Process 26(1):141–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    ICOLD (1994) Ageing of dams and appurtenant works Review and recommendations Bulletin 93. Paris: ICOLD, CIGBGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lantsoght EOL, Van Der Veen C, De Boer A (2016) Proposal for the fatigue strength of concrete under cycles of compression. Constr Build Mater 107:138–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Destrebeco JF (2004) Cyclic and dynamic loading fatigue of structural concrete. In: Torrenti JM, Pijaudier-Cabot G, Reynouard JM (eds) Mechanical behavior of concrete. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 151–181Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ciavarella M, Papangelo A (2018) On the connection between Palmgren-Miner rule and crack propagation laws. Fatigue Fract Eng Mater Struct 41(7):1469–1475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang KJ, Jansen DC, Shah SP, Karr AF (1997) Permeability study of cracked concrete. Cem Concr Res 27(3):381–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    De Roeck BPG, Maeck J (2000) Dynamic monitoring of civil engineering structures. In: Papadrakakis M, Samartin A, Onate E (eds) Computational methods for shell and spatial structures IASS-IACM, Athens, Greece, pp 79–85Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Civil and Geodetic EngineeringUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations