This paper presents interim findings of a research project that was aimed to develop reliable methods to assess the condition of bridges and port-structures. The use of different types of non-destructive testing (NDT) equipment in assessing in situ concrete such as that for concrete cover measurement and locating the arrangement of the reinforcements, air permeability, electrical resistivity and the half-cell potential is reported in this paper. Six electrically inter-connected reinforced concrete (RC) specimens were made under laboratory conditions to validate NDT equipment output and to correlate them. Field testing was then conducted on the exterior of an RC wall of Doug McDonell Building at the University of Melbourne, Parkville campus. The results show that the use of multiple NDT equipment can enhance the understanding of the in situ condition by minimising the limitation inherent in each of the equipment. Combination of output from different testing methods allows a more precise condition assessment of the RC structure. In addition, measurements can be used to estimate the service life of the RC element.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Chalhoub MS (2015) Effect of reinforced concrete deterioration and damage on the seismic performance of structures. In: Belhaq M (ed) Structural nonlinear dynamics and diagnosis: selected papers from CSNDD 2012 and CSNDD 2014. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 77–95
Dolen TP (2005) M Report DSO-05-05 Materials properties model of aging concrete. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver
Commonwealth of Australia (2014) Trends: infrastructure and transport to 2030. Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Canberra. ISBN 978-1-922205-65-0
ALGA (2015) National State of the Assets 2015. Australian Local Government Association (ALGA), Deakin
Cartz L (1995) Nondestructive testing. The Materials Information Society, Materials Park. ISBN 9780871705174
Hellier CJ (2013) Handbook of nondestructive evaluation, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill Education, New York
ASTM C876 (2015) Standard test method for corrosion potentials of uncoated reinforcing steel in concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken
ASTM C805/C805M (2013) Standard test method for rebound number of hardened concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken
IAEA-TCS-9 (1999) Non-destructive testing: a guidebook for industrial management and quality control personnel. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna
AASHTO TP 95 (2011) Standard method of test for surface resistivity indication of concrete’s ability to resist chloride ion penetration. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), USA
Andrade C, Alonso C (2004) Test methods for on-site corrosion rate measurement of steel reinforcement in concrete by means of the polarization resistance method. Mater Struct 37(9):623–643
Andrade C, D’Andrea R, Castillo A, Castellote M (2009) The use of electrical resistivity as NDT method for the specification of the durability of reinforced concrete. In: 7th international symposium on non destructive testing in civil engineering (LCPC 2009), Nantes 2009 June, vol 30
Gu P, Beaudoin JJ (1998) Obtaining effective half-cell potential measurements in reinforced concrete structures. Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa
Nakamura E, Watanabe H, Koga H, Nakamura M, Ikawa K (2008) Half-cell potential measurements to assess corrosion risk of reinforcement steels in a PC bridge. In: RILEM symposium on site assessment of concrete, masonry and timber structures-SACoMaTiS, pp 109–117
Salbei VJ, Sitters CMW, Vantomme J (2014) Nondestructive testing techniques for corrosion assessment in reinforced concrete structures in Kenya. Civil Environ Res 6(7):60–75
Song H-W, Saraswathy V (2007) Corrosion monitoring of reinforced concrete structures—a review. Int J Electrochem Sci 2:1–28
Kucharczyková B, Misák P, Vymazal T (2010) The air permeability measurement by Torrent Permeability Tester. In: The 10th international conference on modern building materials, structures and techniques. Vilnius, Lithuania
Proceq SA (1995) Permeability tester TORRENT: operating instructions. Proceq SA, Schwerzenbach
Polder RB (2001) Test methods for on site measurement of resistivity of concrete—a RILEM TC-154 technical recommendation. Constr Build Mater 15(2):125–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-0618(00)00061-1
RILEM TC 154-EMC (2003) Recommendations of RILEM TC 154-EMC: electrochemical techniques for measuring metallic corrosion Half-cell potential measurements—potential mapping on reinforced concrete structures. Mater Struct 36(261):461–471
Proceq SA (2012) Canin+ corrosion analyzing instrument operating instructions. Proceq SA, Schwerzenbach
Proceq SA (2014) Profometer PM-6 operating instructions. Proceq SA, Schwerzenbach
Proceq SA (2016) Resipod operating instructions. Proceq SA, Schwerzenbach
Torrent RJ (1992) A two-chamber vacuum cell for measuring the coefficient of permeability to air of the concrete cover on site. Mater Struct 25(6):358–365. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02472595
Reddy BM, Rao HS, Ghorpade VG (2014) Effect of sodium chloride on fly ash based blended cement concrete. Int J Adv Eng Technol 6(6):2758
Naik TR, Singh SS, Hossain MM (1994) Permeability of concrete containing large amounts of fly ash. Cem Concr Res 24(5):913–922
Thomas MDA, Matthews JD (1992) The permeability of fly ash concrete. Mater Struct 25(7):388–396
Nagataki S, Ujike I (1986) Air permeability of concretes mixed with fly ash and condensed silica fume. Spec Publ 91:1049–1068
Nath P, Sarker P (2011) Effect of fly ash on the durability properties of high strength concrete. Procedia Eng 14:1149–1156
Chi JM, Huang R, Yang CC (2002) Effects of carbonation on mechanical properties and durability of concrete using accelerated testing method. J Mar Sci Technol 10(1):14–20
Boğa AR, Topçu IB (2012) Influence of fly ash on corrosion resistance and chloride ion permeability of concrete. Constr Build Mater 31:258–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.12.106
Gurdián H, García-Alcocel E, Baeza-Brotons F, Garcés P, Zornoza E (2014) Corrosion behavior of steel reinforcement in concrete with recycled aggregates, fly ash and spent cracking catalyst. Materials 7(4):3176–3197. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7043176
Sinsiri T, Chindaprasirt P, Jaturapitakkul C (2010) Influence of fly ash fineness and shape on the porosity and permeability of blended cement pastes. Int J Miner Metall Mater 17(6):683–690
Kropp J, Hilsdorf HK (1995) Performance criteria for concrete durability—RILEM Report 12. CRC Press, Boca Raton
Maeda M, Nakano Y, Lee KS (2004) Post-earthquake damage evaluation for R/C buildings based on residual seismic capacity. In: 13th world conference on earthquake engineering, Vancouver, no 1179
The authors would like to thank Australia Indonesia Centre (AIC) for the financial support towards Strategic Research Project 2. The contribution from the Australian Research Council’s Discovery Early Career Researcher Grant (DE170100165, DE 2017 R1) is acknowledged. The equipment was purchased through an ARC LIEF Grant (LE140100053). The authors would like to thank the postgraduates Boyuan Zhang, Changda Zhang, Fanxi Meng, and Jialiang Duan for their contribution with Laboratory tests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Sofi, M., Oktavianus, Y., Lumantarna, E. et al. Condition assessment of concrete by hybrid non-destructive tests. J Civil Struct Health Monit 9, 339–351 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13349-019-00336-9
- Non-destructive testing
- Condition assessment
- Service life
- Reinforced concrete