Analysis of effects of diffraction and interference on detection by microwave thermography

  • Sam-Ang KeoEmail author
  • Chan-Young Yune
  • R. G. Dragan
  • Didier Defer
  • Florin Breaban
Original Paper


In this paper, the effects of diffraction and interference on thermograms of steel bars in a reinforced concrete wall using microwave thermography are discussed. Three series of microwave thermography tests were conducted. Transmission approach was used for the first series of tests. The tests were carried out with a single rebar (12 mm diameter) vertically placed against a concrete wall of 1 m × 1 m × 6.5 cm. The sample was heated with an average power of 600 W for 3 min. The second and the last series of tests were carried out with a reinforced concrete wall using transmission and reflection approaches, with five angles of incident waves (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°), and a heating power of 600 W for 5 min. The test results were analyzed based on the Snell–Descartes theory and data interpretation by multiple approaches. Detailed discussion clarifies how diffraction and interference affected the thermograms. In the reflection approach, the incident waves guided by the antenna were refracted after reaching the surface of the concrete wall, then transmitted into the concrete. The fractions of transmitted waves that reached the steel bars were reflected to the surface of the concrete wall, which made those parts of concrete hotter than the other parts without reflected waves. In the transmission approach, the interference of the diffracted waves made the concrete in the areas of wave superposition hotter than other areas and mainly affected the thermograms of the rear surface of the detected wall.


Diffraction Interference Detection Steel Microwave Thermography 



This work was carried out at Laboratoire de Génie Civil et GéoEnvironnement (LGCgE). The authors would like to acknowledge Nord-Pas-Calais Regional Council and Université d’Artois for their financial support. The authors also express their gratitude to the Mechanical and Productive Department of Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Béthune (IUT Béthune) for providing space to carry out the tests. Special thanks to Franck Brachelet, research engineer of Université d’Artois, for having facilitated the preparation of the necessary materials for the tests.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sam-Ang Keo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chan-Young Yune
    • 1
  • R. G. Dragan
    • 2
    • 5
  • Didier Defer
    • 2
    • 3
  • Florin Breaban
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringGangneung-Wonju National UniversityGangneungRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Génie Civil et GéoEnvironnementPRES Lille Nord de FranceLilleFrance
  3. 3.Faculté des Sciences Appliquées (FSA)BéthuneFrance
  4. 4.Institut Universitaire de Technologie (IUT)BéthuneFrance
  5. 5.DPMM DepartmentTransylvania UniversityBrasovRomania

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