Drug Delivery and Translational Research

, Volume 9, Issue 6, pp 1017–1026 | Cite as

Chlorpheniramine maleate containing chitosan-based nanoparticle-loaded thermosensitive in situ gel for management in allergic rhinitis

  • Manish KumarEmail author
  • Pooja Upadhayay
  • Ravi Shankar
  • Monika Joshi
  • Shailendra Bhatt
  • Anuj Malik
Original Article


The aim of the present study was to fabricate a thermosensitive gel containing chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM)–loaded nanoparticles following intranasal administration for effective treatment of allergic rhinitis. Chitosan-based nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method followed by the addition of developed NPs within the poloxamer 407– and carbopol 934P–based mucoadhesive thermoreversible gel. Developed formulations were evaluated for particle size, PDI, % entrapment efficiency, and % cumulative drug permeation. NP3 formulation was found to be optimized on the basis of minimum particle size (143.9 nm), maximum entrapment efficiency (80.10 ± 0.414%), and highest drug permeation (90.92 ± 0.531%). The optimized formulation NP3 was then formulated into thermoreversible in situ gel. This intensifies the contact between the nasal mucosa and the drug and increases and facilitates the drug absorption which results in increased bioavailability. G4 formulation was selected as the optimized formulation on the basis of gelation ability and mucoadhesive strength. Histology was carried out to examine the damage caused by the optimized G4 formulation. Results revealed no visual signs of tissue damage thus indicated safe nasal delivery of nanoparticulate in situ gel formulation G4. Thus, intranasal CPM NP–loaded in situ gel was found to be a promising formulation for the management of allergic rhinitis.


Chitosan Nanoparticles In situ gel Chlorpheniramine maleate Poloxamer 407 



The authors are thankful to Rajiv Academy for Pharmacy, Mathura, for providing the facilities and instruments to carry out this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

For this study, prior clearance from an institutional animal ethics committee (approval number AUHAEC-22/FOP/2014) was obtained.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.


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Copyright information

© Controlled Release Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.M M College of PharmacyMaharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University)AmbalaIndia
  2. 2.Department of PharmaceuticsRajiv Academy for PharmacyMathuraIndia
  3. 3.Department of PharmaceuticsSHEAT College of PharmacyVaranasiIndia
  4. 4.Department of PharmaceuticsAshoka Institute of PharmacyVaranasiIndia

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