Hyaluronic acid-modified betamethasone encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles: fabrication, characterisation, in vitro release kinetics, and dermal targeting

  • Manisha Pandey
  • Hira Choudhury
  • Tarakini A. P. Gunasegaran
  • Saranyah Shanmugah Nathan
  • Shadab Md
  • Bapi Gorain
  • Minaketan Tripathy
  • Zahid HussainEmail author
Original Article


Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronically relapsing eczematous skin disease characterised by frequent episodes of rashes, severe flares, and inflammation. Till date, there is no absolute therapy for the treatment of AD; however, topical corticosteroids (TCs) are the majorly prescribed class of drugs for the management of AD in both adults and children. Though, topical route is most preferable; however, limited penetration of therapeutics across the startum cornum (SC) is one of the major challenges for scientists. Therefore, the present study was attempted to fabricate a moderate-potency TC, betamethasone valerate (BMV), in the form of chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) for optimum dermal targeting and improved penetration across the SC. To further improve the targeting efficiency of BMV and to potentiate its therapeutic efficacy, the fabricated BMV-CS-NPs were coated with hyaluronic acid (HA). The prepared NPs were characterised for particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, crystallinity, thermal behaviour, morphology, in vitro release kinetics, drug permeation across the SC, and percentage of drug retained into various skin layers. Results showed that optimised HA-BMV-CS-NPs exhibited optimum physicochemical characteristics including finest particle size (< 300 ± 28 nm), higher zeta potential (+ 58 ± 8 mV), and high entrapment efficiency (86 ± 5.6%) and loading capacity (34 ± 7.2%). The in vitro release study revealed that HA-BMV-CS-NPs displayed Fickian diffusion-type mechanism of release in simulated skin surface (pH 5.5). Drug permeation efficiency of BMV was comparatively higher in case of BMV-CS-NPs; however, the amount of drug retained into the epidermis and the dermis was comparatively higher in case of HA-BMV-CS-NPs, compared to BMV-CS-NPs. Conclusively, we anticipate that HA-BMV-CS-NPs could be a promising nanodelivery system for efficient dermal targeting of BMV and improved anti-AD efficacy.


Atopic dermatitis Betamethasone valerate Hyaluronic acid Chitosan nanoparticles Penetration across stratum corneum Dermal targeting 



The authors would like to acknowledge Institute of Research Management & Innovation (IRMI), Universiti Teknologi MARA, for providing LESTARI grants (600-IRMI/DANA 5/3/LESTARI (0007/2016)).

Compliance with ethical standards

Declaration of interest

The authors report no declaration of interest in the present work.


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Copyright information

© Controlled Release Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manisha Pandey
    • 1
  • Hira Choudhury
    • 1
  • Tarakini A. P. Gunasegaran
    • 1
  • Saranyah Shanmugah Nathan
    • 1
  • Shadab Md
    • 1
  • Bapi Gorain
    • 2
  • Minaketan Tripathy
    • 3
  • Zahid Hussain
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of PharmacyInternational Medical University-Bukit Jalil 57000Kuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of PharmacyLincoln University CollegeKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Laboratory of Fundamentals of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of PharmacyUniversiti Teknologi MARABandar Puncak AlamMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of PharmacyUniversiti Teknologi MARABandar Puncak AlamMalaysia

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