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Drug Delivery and Translational Research

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 868–882 | Cite as

Monocyte-mediated drug delivery systems for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases

  • Gil Aizik
  • Etty Grad
  • Gershon GolombEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

Major advances have been achieved in understanding the mechanisms and risk factors leading to cardiovascular disorders and consequently developing new therapies. A strong inflammatory response occurs with a substantial recruitment of innate immunity cells in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and restenosis. Monocytes and macrophages are key players in the healing process that ensues following injury. In the inflamed arterial wall, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages have specific functions in the initiation and resolution of inflammation, principally through phagocytosis, and the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. In this review, we will focus on delivery systems, mainly nanoparticles, for modulating circulating monocytes/monocyte-derived macrophages. We review the different strategies of depletion or modulation of circulating monocytes and monocyte subtypes, using polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes for the therapy of myocardial infarction and restenosis. We will further discuss the strategies of exploiting circulating monocytes for biological targeting of nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems for therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

Keywords

Drug delivery systems Liposomes Polymeric nanoparticles Monocytes Monocyte subpopulations Vascular injury 

Abbreviations

ALN-NPs

Alendronate nanoparticles

BPs

Bisphosphonates

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CM

Classical monocytes

CVD

Cardiovascular disease(s)

DDS

Drug delivery system(s)

DES

Drug eluting stent

EC

Endothelial cells

DM

Diabetes mellitus

EPR

Enhanced permeability and retention effect

Ga

Gallium

Gd

Gadolinium

IM

Intermediate monocytes

LipALN

Liposomal alendronate

LipCLOD

Liposomal clodronate

LipQDs

Liposomal quantum dots

MI

Myocardial infraction

MPS

Mononuclear phagocytic system

Nc

Number concentration

NCM

Non-classical monocytes

NPs

Nanoparticles

PCI

Percutaneous coronary intervention(s)

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PLGA

Poly(d,l-lactide co-glycolide)

QDs

Quantum dots

QY

Quantum yield

siCCR2

siRNA sequence against CCR2

SMC

Smooth muscle cells

Notes

Acknowledgements

GG is grateful to the Woll Sisters and Brothers Chair in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

EG and GA declare that they have no conflict of interest. GG has a financial stake in Biorest Ltd.

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Copyright information

© Controlled Release Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of MedicineThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

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