Drug Delivery and Translational Research

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 32–42 | Cite as

Jet dispensing of multi-layered films for the co-delivery of three antihypertensive agents

  • Nicolaos Scoutaris
  • Maria Malamatari
  • Adrien Letellier
  • Dennis DouroumisEmail author
Original Article


Three-layer thin films comprising of two polymers as substrate (ethyl cellulose and, copovidone K28) and three antihypertensive agents (hydrochlorothiazide, amiloride HCl, and carvedilol) were printed using jet dispensing technology. Two film formulations with different ethyl cellulose to copovidone K28 ratio (i.e., 90/10 and 50/50 w/w) were prepared using a three-course dispensing. The films were characterized regarding surface morphology, solid-state properties, polymer-drug interactions, drug distribution in each layer, and in vitro drug release. All the components of the films were found to be in the amorphous state apart from hydrochlorothiazide which retained its crystallinity. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed hydrogen bond interactions between carvedilol and copovidone K28. Combinations of ethyl cellulose and copovidone K28 provide suitable polymeric film substrates with the ability to modify drug release. Particularly, decreased ethyl cellulose to copovidone K28 weight ratio was found to suppress the crystallization of hydrochlorothiazide and to increase the release rate of the dispensed drugs. Jet dispensing was found to be a rapid technology for the preparation of multi-layered films that can be used as personalized formulations for the delivery of combinations of drugs.


Jet dispensing Films Combination therapy Antihypertensive drugs 



The authors are grateful to Ms. Devyani Amin (University of Greenwich) for her help with the development of the HPLC method.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Controlled Release Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolaos Scoutaris
    • 1
  • Maria Malamatari
    • 1
  • Adrien Letellier
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dennis Douroumis
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and ScienceUniversity of GreenwichKentUK
  2. 2.University of RouenMont-Saint-AignanFrance

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