Drug Delivery and Translational Research

, Volume 6, Issue 5, pp 511–518 | Cite as

Formulation and evaluation of proniosomes containing lornoxicam

  • Jyotsana R. MadanEmail author
  • Nitesh P. Ghuge
  • Kamal Dua
Original Article


Proniosomes are the new generation provesicular drug delivery system of non-ionic surfactant, lecithin and cholesterol which upon reconstitution get converted into niosomes. The objective of current study was to develop stable and sustain transdermal delivery system for lornoxicam. Lornoxicam-loaded topically applied proniosomal gel was formulated, optimized, and evaluated with the aim to deliver drug transdermally. Lornoxicam-loaded proniosomal gels were prepared that contained Lutrol F68 and lecithin as surfactants, cholesterol as a stabilizer, and minimal amount of ethanol and trace water. The resultant lornoxicam-loaded proniosomal gel were assessed for stability and the proniosomes-derived niosomes were characterized for morphology, size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency, which revealed that they were suitable for skin application. The coacervation phase separation technique was used in formulation of lornoxicam proniosomal gel and the gel was further assessed for in vitro permeation of lornoxicam through the freshly excised rat skin and the cumulative permeation amount of lornoxicam from proniosome, all exhibited significant increase as compared to 1.0 % lornoxicam-loaded pure gel. The optimized F5 batch had shown maximum entrapment efficiency up to 66.98 %. It has shown sustained drug release for more than 24 h. The skin permeability of proniosomal gel was found to be 59.73 %. The SEM and zeta potential studies showed formation of good and stable vesicles. Thus, proniosomes proved to have better potential for transdermal delivery of lornoxicam over conventional gel formulations.


Proniosomes Lornoxicam Lecithin Entrapment efficiency Gel 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest disclosure

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest involved with this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Kumbhar D, Wavikar P, Vavia P. Niosomal gel of lornoxicam for topical delivery: in vitro assessment and pharmacodynamic activity. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2013;14(3):1072–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chavan P, Jain B, Jain P. Proniosomes as drug carrier system for transdermal delivery of lornoxicam. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2012;1(1):393–404.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dasgupta S, Ghosh SK, Ray S, Kaurav SS, Mazumder B. In vitro & in vivo studies on lornoxicam loaded nanoemulsion gels for topical application. Curr Drug Deliv. 2014;11:132–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li Q, Li Z, Zeng W, Ge S, Lu H, Wu C, et al. Proniosome-derived niosomes for tacrolimus topical ocular delivery: in vitro cornea permeation, ocular irritation, and in vivo anti-allograft rejection. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2014;62:115–23.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shahzada Y, Khanb Q, Hussaina T, Shahb SNH. Influence of cellulose derivative and ethylene glycol on optimization of lornoxicam transdermal formulation. Int J Biol Macromol. 2013;61:26–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sammour OA, Marzouk MA, Ramadan AA, Shawky SM. In-vitro permeation and pharmaco-dynamic properties of gel formulations containing tenoxicam entrapped niosomes. J Lifestyle Med. 2013;1:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kamboj S, Saini V, Bala S, Sharma G. Formulation and characterization of drug loaded niosomal gel for anti-inflammatory activity. Int Sch Sci Res Innov. 2013;2013(7):541–5.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Londhe VY, Thakkar V, Ranade SC. Topical delivery of lornoxicam: design, evaluation and effect of penetration enhancers. Indo American J Pharm Res. 2013;3:3174–81.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kumarsingh V, Raj T, Kumarsingh P, Singh U, Singh AP, Kumar A. Design and development of a proniosomal transdermal drug delivery system of lornoxicam. Am J PharmTech Res. 2014;4:766–79.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    El Maghraby GM, Ahmed AA, Osman MA. Penetration enhancers in proniosomes as a new strategy for enhanced transdermal drug delivery. Saudi Pharm J. 2014;1–8.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ibrahim MMA, Sammour OA, Hammad MA, Megrab NA. In Vitro evaluation of proniosomes as a drug carrier for flurbiprofen. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2008;9(3):782–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumar S, Awasthi R. Development of montelukast sodium loaded niosomal carriers by film hydration technique. Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents Med. 2015;14(1):63–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Solanki AB, Parikh JR, Parikh RH. Formulation and optimization of piroxicam proniosomes by 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007;8:E1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vora B, Khopade AJ, Jain NK. Proniosomes based transdermal delivery of levonorgesterol for effective contraception. J Control Release. 1998;54:149–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bai Y, Abbott NL. Recent advances in colloidal and interfacial phenomena involving liquid crystals. Langmuir. 2011;27:5719–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sezgin-Bayindir Z, Yuksel N. Investigation of formulation variables and excipient interaction on the production of niosomes. Am Assoc Pharm Scient. 2012;13:826–32.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abdelbary GA, Aburahma MH. Oro-dental mucoadhesive proniosomal gel formulation loaded with lornoxicam for management of dental pain. J Liposome Res (England). 2015;25(2):107–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alladi S, Shastri NR. Semi solid matrix formulations of meloxicam and tenoxicam: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Arch Pharm Res (Korea (south)). 2015;38(5):801–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jiao J. Polyoxyethylated nonionic surfactants and their applications in topical ocular drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008;60:1663–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fang JY, Yu SY, Wu PC, Huang YB, Tsai YH. In vitro skin permeation of estradiol from various proniosome formulations. Int J Pharm. 2001;215:91–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Balakrishnan P, Shanmugam S, Lee WS, Lee WM, Kim JO, Oh DH, et al. Formulation and in vitro assessment of minoxidil niosomes for enhanced skin delivery. Int J Pharm. 2009;377(1):1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kandasamy R, Veintramuthu S. Formulation and optimization of zidovudine niosomes. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2010;11(3):1119–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chawla V, Saraf SA. Rheological studies on solid lipid nanoparticle based carbopol gels of aceclofenac. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2012. 2012;92:293–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ahmed MO, Al-Badr AA. Profiles of drug substances, excipients, and related methodology. ISSN.36:206-219.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li Q, Li Z, Zeng W, Ge S, Lu H, Wu C, et al. Proniosome-derived niosomes for tacrolimus topical ocular delivery. 2014;62:115–23Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Controlled Release Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jyotsana R. Madan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nitesh P. Ghuge
    • 1
  • Kamal Dua
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PharmaceuticsSinhgad Technical Education Society’s, Smt. Kashibai Navale College of PharmacyPuneIndia
  2. 2.School of Pharmacy and Biomedical SciencesThe University of NewcastleNewcastleAustralia

Personalised recommendations