Drug Delivery and Translational Research

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 310–319 | Cite as

Pharmacokinetics of ketorolac tromethamine compression-coated tablets for colon delivery

  • Sateesh Kumar VemulaEmail author
  • Prabhakar Reddy Veerareddy
  • Venkat Ratnam Devadasu
Clinical Research


Present research efforts are focused in developing compression-coated ketorolac tromethamine tablets to improve the drug levels in colon by retarding the drug release in the stomach and small intestine. To achieve this objective, core tablets containing ketorolac tromethamine were prepared by direct compression and compression coated with sodium alginate. The developed tablets were evaluated for physical properties, in vitro drug release, X-ray imaging, and pharmacokinetic studies in human volunteers. Based on the in vitro drug release study, the optimized formulation showed very little drug release (6.75 ± 0.49 %) in the initial lag period of 5 h, followed by progressive release up to 97.47 ± 0.93 % within 24 h. The X-ray imaging of tablets in human volunteers showed that the tablets reached the colon without disintegrating in the upper gastrointestinal tract. From the pharmacokinetic study, the C max of colon-targeted tablets was 3,486.70 ng/ml at T max 10 h, whereas in the case of immediate-release tablets, the C max of 4,506.31 ng/ml at T max 2 h signifies the ability of compression-coated tablets to target the colon. In conclusion, compression-coated tablets are suitable to deliver ketorolac tromethamine to the colon.


Immediate release Lag period Pharmacokinetics Timed release Targeted drug delivery X-ray imaging 



The authors acknowledge Bright Labs, Hyderabad, India and Matrix Laboratories, Hyderabad, India for the gift sample of ketorolac tromethamine and sodium alginate. The authors also thank the Principal and Management, Jangaon Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for providing facilities.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Controlled Release Society 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sateesh Kumar Vemula
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Prabhakar Reddy Veerareddy
    • 1
    • 3
  • Venkat Ratnam Devadasu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmaceuticsChaitanya College of Pharmacy Education and ResearchWarangalIndia
  2. 2.Department of PharmaceuticsJangaon Institute of Pharmaceutical SciencesWarangalIndia
  3. 3.College of PharmacyPalamuru UniversityMahabubnagarIndia

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