Effective Nikuradse Roughness on the Mobile Plan Bed
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Nikuradse roughness (ks) is very important in the sediment transport prediction because it is related to the evaluations of the velocity distribution, shear stress and erosion depth. Dimensionless Nikuradse roughness (ks/D, where D is the sediment diameter) is usually given 1–2.5 on the immobile plan bed or at low shear stress. But it behaves differently on the mobile plan bed at high shear stress with much sediment picked up to movement when the Shields parameter (Θ) is larger than 0.8–1.0. The effective Nikuradse roughness on the mobile plan bed was derived indirectly from the erosion depth correlated to the mobile plan bed thickness considering the mass conservation in the present study. The proposed erosion depth confirmed the relation to the Shields parameters with an extra factor consisting of suspended sediment and its damping to turbulence. The decrement of the erosion depth caused by the increment of the sediment diameter at large shear stress was obtained, which was usually absent in classical empirical formulas based on the bedload theory. Good agreement with experiments was achieved by the present prediction of the Nikuradse roughness, erosion depth and sediment transport rate. Discussion was mainly focused on the prediction improvement caused by considering the impact of suspended sediment and its damping to turbulence.
Key wordsmobile plan bed Nikuradse roughness oscillatory sheet flow sediment transport
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