China Ocean Engineering

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 169–178 | Cite as

Experimental Investigation of the Resistance Performance and Heave and Pitch Motions of Ice-Going Container Ship Under Pack Ice Conditions

  • Chun-yu GuoEmail author
  • Chang Xie
  • Jin-zhao Zhang
  • Shuai Wang
  • Da-gang Zhao


In order to analyze the ice-going ship’s performance under the pack ice conditions, synthetic ice was introduced into a towing tank. A barrier using floating cylinder in the towing tank was designed to carry out the resistance experiment. The test results indicated that the encountering frequency between the ship model and the pack ice shifts towards a high-velocity point as the concentration of the pack ice increases, and this encountering frequency creates an unstable region of the resistance, and the unstable region shifts to the higher speed with the increasing concentration. The results also showed that for the same speed points, the ratio of the pack ice resistance to the open water resistance increases with the increasing concentration, and for the same concentrations, this ratio decreases as the speed increases. Motion characteristics showed that the mean value of the heave motion increases as the speed increases, and the pitch motion tends to increase with the increasing speed. In addition, the total resistance of the fullscale was predicted.


synthetic ice pack ice concentration heave pitch peak collision value 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This study also received support from the towing tank of Harbin Engineering University for the experiments. The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the laboratory staff, who assisted the procedures to ensure the success of the study. The authors express sincere gratitude to those who supported the study.


  1. Colbourne, D.B., 2000. Scaling pack ice and iceberg loads on moored ship shapes, Oceanic Engineering International, 4(1), 39–45.Google Scholar
  2. Derradji-Aouat, A., 2002. Experimental Uncertainty Analysis for Ice Tank Ship Resistance Experiments, Institute for Ocean Technology, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada.Google Scholar
  3. Derradji-Aouat, A., 2003. Phase II Experimental Uncertainty Analysis for Ice Tank Ship Resistance Experiments, Institute for Ocean Technology, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada.Google Scholar
  4. Derradji-Aouat, A. and Thiel, A., 2004. Terry Fox Resistance Tests–Phase III (PMM Testing). The ITTC Experimental Uncertainty Analysis Initiative, Institute for Ocean Technology, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada.Google Scholar
  5. Kim, H.S., Ha, M.K., Ahn, D., Kim, S.H. and Park, J.W., 2005. Development of 115K tanker adopting Baltic ice class 1A, Proceedings of the 15th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, ISOPE, Seoul, Korea.Google Scholar
  6. Kim, H.S.H., Ahn, D. and Molyneux, D., 2006. Hull Form Designs for Icebreaking Tankers, SNAME, Banff, Alberta, Canada.Google Scholar
  7. Kim, M.C., Lee, S.K., Lee, W.H., Li, W.J. and Wang, J.Y., 2013. Numerical and experimental investigation of the resistance performance of an icebreaking cargo vessel in pack ice conditions, International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, 5(1), 116–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lau, M., Wang, J.Y. and Lee, C.J., 2007. Review of ice modeling methodology, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering Under Arctic Conditions, 13.Google Scholar
  9. Lee, S.W. and Song J.M., 2014. Economic possibilities of shipping though Northern Sea route, The Asian Journal of Shipping and Lo-gistics, 30(3), 415–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Marchenko, N., 2013. Navigation in the Russian Arctic: Sea ice caused difficulties and accidents, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, ASME, Nantes, France, pp. V006T07A011.Google Scholar
  11. Molyneux, W.D. and Kim, H.S., 2007. Model experiments to support the design of large icebreaking tankers, Proceedings of Design and Construction of Vessels Operating in Low Temperature Environments, National Research Council Canada, London, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Nie, F.J., Zhang, W.B., Cao, Y. and Zhao, Y.A., 2013. New progress on the exploration of the important mineral resources of the arctic circle and its adjacent region, Geological Science and Technology Information, 35(5), 1–8. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. Song, Y.Y., Kim, M.C. and Chun, H.H., 2007. A study on resistance test of icebreaker with synthetic ice, Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 44(4), 389–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Spencer, D., 1992. A standard method for the conduct and analysis of ice resistance model tests, Proceedings of the 23rd American Towing Tank Conference, ATTC, Los Angeles, USA, pp. 301–307.Google Scholar
  15. Su, B., Riska, K. and Moan, T., 2010. A numerical method for the prediction of ship performance in level ice, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 60(3), 177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tan, X., Riska, K. and Moan, T., 2014. Performance simulation of a dual-direction ship in level ice, Journal of Ship Research, 58(3), 168–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tan, X., Su, B., Riska, K. and Moan, T., 2013. A six-degrees-of-freedom numerical model for level ice-ship interaction, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 92, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Tuovinen, P., 1979. The Size Distribution of Ice Blocks in A Broken Channel, Teknillinen korkeakoulu.Google Scholar
  19. Von Bock und Polach, R. and Ehlers, S., 2011. Heave and pitch motions of a ship in model ice: An experimental study on ship resistance and ice breaking pattern, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 68(1–2), 49–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chinese Ocean Engineering Society and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chun-yu Guo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chang Xie
    • 2
  • Jin-zhao Zhang
    • 3
  • Shuai Wang
    • 1
  • Da-gang Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Shipbuilding EngineeringHarbin Engineering UniversityHarbinChina
  2. 2.Nantong COSCO KHI Ship Engineering Co. LtdNantongChina
  3. 3.Shanghai Marine Equipment Research InstituteShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations