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Isolation and molecular characterization of coxsackievirus A6 and coxsackievirus A16 from a case of recurrent Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, 2018

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Abstract

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is caused by multiple Enterovirus (EV) serotypes mainly coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71). Recurrent HFMD infections are rarely reported. An unusual rise in HFMD cases was reported in Mumbai during May–June 2018. Stool and throat swab specimens were referred from seven children from two hospitals for laboratory diagnosis. The age group of cases ranged from 9 months to 5 years with median age 13 months. Out of seven cases, three were males and four females. One 13-month-old female case was reported twice within 21 days. Stool, throat swab specimens were tested by pan enterovirus RT-PCR and also by virus isolation using human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line for detection of Enteroviruses. Out of seven HFMD cases, CV-A6 and CV-A16 viruses were isolated from five and two cases respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of CV-A6 viruses showed their similarity with CV-A6 viruses from Finland and China, whereas the two CV-A16 isolates showed similarity with those from Japan, France, China, Sarawak and Thailand. For the recurrent HFMD case, CV-A6 and CV-A16 were isolated from the stool specimens collected during the first and second episodes, respectively. There are no reports of isolation and molecular characterization of CV-A6 and CV-A16 viruses from recurrent HFMD cases. The present study reports molecular characterization of two Enterovirus serotypes CV-A6 and CV-A16 from a recurrent HFMD case, highlighting need of virological and molecular surveillance of HFMD.

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Acknowledgements

We sincerely thank Dr. DT Mourya, Former Director, NIV, Pune for his keen interest in the work and support. We also thank Dr. RR Gangakhedkar, Head, ECD, Dr. Nivedita Gupta, Scientist-F, ECD, Indian Council of Medical Research Head Quarters, New Delhi for prompting this study.

Funding

This work was supported by intramural grant from the Indian Council of Medical Research.

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Correspondence to Vinay K. Saxena or Shailesh D. Pawar.

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Saxena, V.K., Pawar, S.D., Qureshi, T.H.I.H. et al. Isolation and molecular characterization of coxsackievirus A6 and coxsackievirus A16 from a case of recurrent Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, 2018. VirusDis. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13337-020-00567-1

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Keywords

  • Hand Foot and Mouth Disease
  • Recurrence
  • Coxsackievirus
  • Enteroviruses