pp 1–11 | Cite as

Molecular characterization of chicken astroviruses in gout-affected commercial broiler chickens in Haryana, India

  • Sumitra Panigrahi
  • Naresh JindalEmail author
  • Pawan Kumar
  • Sanjay Barua
  • Naveen Kumar
  • Thachamvally Riyesh
  • Yogesh Chander
Original Article


Chicken astroviruses (CAstVs) infect young chicks and are associated with gastroenteritis, stunted growth or visceral gout (gout). True incidence and distribution of CAstVs as well as virus variants circulating in India is not well understood. In this study, 80 gout-affected broiler chicken flocks from Haryana, a north-western state of India, were tested for the presence of astroviruses by targeting the polymerase gene of both CAstV and avian nephritis virus (ANV) and capsid gene of CAstV. Of these, 22 (27.5%) flocks were found positive for CAstV, 7(8.75%) for ANV and 2 (2.5%) for both CAstV and ANV genome by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction. CAstV was isolated by inoculating tissue (kidney) homogenate from gout-affected birds into specific-pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs where the infected embryos showed stunted growth with necrosis of liver and enlarged kidney with urate deposits. Capsid gene-based phylogenetic analysis revealed the clustering of CAstV strains from this study with Indian strains of serogroup Biii suggesting their antigenic relatedness. Thus the present study reveals the presence of chicken astroviruses in broiler chickens affected with gout.


Gout Chicken astrovirus Avian nephritis virus Commercial broiler chicken 



The authors are thankful to National Research Centre on Equines, National Centre for Veterinary Type Culture Collection, Hisar, Haryana (India) for their support during the entire research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no any conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Baxendale W, Mebatsion T. The isolation and characterisation of astroviruses from chickens. Avian Pathol. 2004;33(3):364–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bayry J, Goudar MS, Nighot PK, Kshirsagar SG, Ladman BS, Gelb J, Ghalsasi GR, Kolte GN. Emergence of a nephropathogenic avian infectious bronchitis virus with a novel genotype in India. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:916–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bulbule NR, Mandakhalikar KD, Kapgate SS, Deshmukh VV, Schat KA, Chawak MM. Role of chicken astrovirus as a causative agent of gout in commercial broilers in India. Avian Pathol. 2013;42(5):464–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Canelli E, Cordioli P, Barbieri I, Catella A, Pennelli D, Ceruti R, Moreno A, Lavazza A. Astroviruses as causative agents of poultry enteritis: genetic characterization and longitudinal studies on field conditions. Avian Dis. 2012;56(1):173–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Day JM, Spackman E, Pantin-Jackwood M. A multiplex RT-PCR test for the differential identification of turkey astrovirus type 1, turkey astrovirus type 2, chicken astrovirus, avian nephritis virus, and avian rotavirus. Avian Dis. 2007;51(3):681–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    De la Torre DI, Nunez LF, Astolfi-Ferreira CS, Piantino Ferreira AJ. Enteric virus diversity examined by molecular methods in Brazilian poultry flocks. Vet Sci. 2018;5(2):38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Devaney R, Trudgett J, Trudgett A, Meharg C, Smyth V. A metagenomic comparison of endemic viruses from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome and from normal birds. Avian Pathol. 2016;45(6):616–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hewson KA, O’Rourke D, Noormohammadi AH. Detection of avian nephritis virus in Australian chicken flocks. Avian Dis. 2010;54(3):990–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Imada T, Yamaguchi S, Mase M, Tsukamoto K, Kubo M, Morooka A. Avian nephritis virus (ANV) as a new member of the family Astroviridae and construction of infectious ANV cDNA. J Virol. 2000;74(18):8487–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jindal N, Patnayak DP, Chander Y, Ziegler AF, Goyal SM. Detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses from poult enteritis syndrome in turkeys. Poult Sci. 2010;89:217–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kaithal B, Jindal N, Kumar P, Mor SK. Detection and molecular characterization of enteric viruses in enteritis-affected commercial broiler chickens in India. Acta Virol. 2016;60(4):361–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kang KI, Linnemann E, Icard AH, Durairaj V, Mundt E, Sellers HS. Chicken astrovirus as an aetiological agent of runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens. J Gen Virol. 2018;99:512–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Long KE, Ouckama RM, Weisz A, Brash ML, Ojkic D. White chick syndrome associated with chicken astrovirus in Ontario, Canada. Avian Dis. 2018;62(2):247–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Luna LG. Manual on histological staining methods of the armed forces institute of pathology. 3rd ed. New York: Mac Graw Hill Company; 1968.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mandoki M, Bakonyi T, Ivanics É, Nemes C, Dobos-Kovacs M, Rusvai M. Phylogenetic diversity of avian nephritis virus in Hungarian chicken flocks. Avian Pathol. 2006;35(3):224–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mendez E, Arias CF. Astroviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Straus SE, Martin MA, Roizman B, editors. Fields virology, vol. 1. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins; 2007. p. 981–1000.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mettifogo E, Nunez LF, Chacón JL, Santander Parra SH, Astolfi-Ferreira CS, Jerez JA, Jones RC, Piantino Ferreira AJ. Emergence of enteric viruses in production chickens is a concern for avian health. Sci World J. 2014. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moser LA, Schultz-Cherry S. Pathogenesis of astrovirus infection. Viral Immunol. 2005;18(1):4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moura-Alvarez J, Chacon JV, Scanavini LS, Nunez LF, Astolfi-Ferreira CS, Jones RC, Piantino Ferreira AJ. Enteric viruses in Brazilian turkey flocks: single and multiple virus infection frequency according to age and clinical signs of intestinal disease. Poult Sci. 2013;92(4):945–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nunez LF, Parra SH, Mettifogo E, Catroxo MH, Astolfi-Ferreira CS, Piantino Ferreira AJ. Isolation of chicken astrovirus from specific pathogen-free chicken embryonated eggs. Poult Sci. 2015;94(5):947–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pantin-Jackwood MJ, Spackman E, Woolcock PR. Molecular characterization and typing of chicken and turkey astroviruses circulating in the United States: implications for diagnostics. Avian Dis. 2006;50(3):397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pantin-Jackwood MJ, Strother KO, Mundt E, Zsak L, Day JM, Spackman E. Molecular characterization of avian astroviruses. Arch Virol. 2011;156(2):235–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Patel AK, Pandit RJ, Thakkar JR, Hinsu AT, Pandey VC, Pal JK, Prajapati KS, Jakhesara SJ, Joshi CG. Complete genome sequence analysis of chicken astrovirus isolate from India. Vet Res Commun. 2017;41(1):67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reynolds DL, Schultz-Cherry S. Astrovirus infections. In: Saif YM, Fadly AM, Glisson JR, McDougald LR, Nolan LK, Swayne DE, editors. Diseases of poultry. 12th ed. Ames: Blackwell Publishers; 2008. p. 351–5.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sajewicz-Krukowska J, Pac K, Lisowska A, Pikuła A, Minta Z, Króliczewska B, Domańska-Blicharz K. Astrovirus-induced, “white chicks” condition–field observation, virus detection and preliminary characterization. Avian Pathol. 2016;45(1):2–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smyth VJ. A review of the strain diversity and pathogenesis of chicken astrovirus. Viruses. 2017;9(29):1–10.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smyth VJ, Todd D, Trudgett J, Lee A, Welsh MD. Capsid protein sequence diversity of chicken astrovirus. Avian Pathol. 2012;41(2):151–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Smyth V, Trudgett J, Wylie M, Jewhurst H, Conway B, Welsh M, Kaukonen E, Perko-Makela P. Chicken astrovirus detected in hatchability problems associated with ‘white chicks’. Vet Rec. 2013;173(16):403–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Spackman D, Gough RE, Collins MS, Lanning D. Isolation of an enterovirus-like agent from the meconium of dead-in-shell chicken embryos. Vet Rec. 1984;114:216–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30(12):2725–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang Q, Cao Y, Wang J, Fu G, Sun M, Zhang L, Meng L, Cui G, Huang Y, Hu X, Su J. Isolation and characterization of an astrovirus causing fatal visceral gout in domestic goslings. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2018;7(71):1–10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Virological Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sumitra Panigrahi
    • 1
  • Naresh Jindal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pawan Kumar
    • 2
  • Sanjay Barua
    • 3
  • Naveen Kumar
    • 3
  • Thachamvally Riyesh
    • 3
  • Yogesh Chander
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Public Health and EpidemiologyLala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal SciencesHisarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Veterinary SciencesLala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal SciencesHisarIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-National Research Centre on EquinesNational Centre for Veterinary Type Culture CollectionHisarIndia

Personalised recommendations