, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 360–366 | Cite as

Molecular evidence of human papillomaviruses in the retinoblastoma tumor

  • Davod Javanmard
  • Masood Moein
  • Maryam EsghaeiEmail author
  • Masood Naseripour
  • Seyed Hamidreza Monavari
  • Farah Bokharaei‐Salim
  • Alireza Sadeghipour
Original Article


Retinoblastoma tumor (RB) is one of the most prevalent ocular cancers among children. RB may be caused by inherited mutations in RB1 gene as well as some environmental risk factors. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are suspected as a risk factor of RB due to their pRb inactivating protein. This study evaluated the molecular prevalence of HPV among the RB tumor specimens in Iran. The RB tumor samples were tested for detection of HPV-L1 gene using a nested-PCR approach, and then followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis to reveal HPV types. Overall, there were 61 RB tumor samples; 54/61 (88.5%) had unilateral and 7/61 (11.5%) bilateral RB; 55/61 cases (90.2%) had sporadic non-familial RB tumor. HPV-DNA was detected in 6/61 (9.8%) of patients’ tumors; the HPV positive RB cases all had unilateral and unfamiliar sporadic RB tumor. HPV type 16 was the most prevalent type identified across the RB tumor samples (3/61, 4.9%). The rate of detected HPV among the RB specimens seems to be considerable. Further investigations are required to elucidate the exact association between HPV and progression to RB.


Retinoblastoma tumor RB Human papillomavirus HPV Iran 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All the authors have stated to have no conflict of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

13337_2019_540_MOESM1_ESM.doc (46 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 45 kb)


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Copyright information

© Indian Virological Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Davod Javanmard
    • 1
  • Masood Moein
    • 1
  • Maryam Esghaei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masood Naseripour
    • 2
  • Seyed Hamidreza Monavari
    • 1
  • Farah Bokharaei‐Salim
    • 1
    • 3
  • Alireza Sadeghipour
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of VirologyIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Eye Research Center, Rassoul Akram HospitalIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.HIV Laboratory of National Center, Deputy of HealthIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Pathology, Rassoul Akram HospitalIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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